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What document covers map reading and land navigation?
FM 3-25 26
What is the purpose of a map?
To provide accurate information about the existence, location and distance between ground features like terrain, elevation, populated areas, routes of travel and communication
What is the scale on a map?
The ratio of ground distances to map distance and expressed in a fraction
How many map scales are there and what are there names?
3 scales Small, Medium, and Large
Name several types of maps?
Topographical, Planimetric, photomap, terrain model
What is marginal information?
Instructions on the maps use, size and area
Where is the map sheet name found?
the center of the upper margin and either the right or left side of the lower margin
What is a map usually named after?
The most prominent geographical or cultural feature
Where is the map sheet number found?
The upper right and lower left margins
Where is the map series number found?
In the upper left margin
Where is the scale of the map found?
In the upper left margin after the series name, and in the lower margin at the center
Where is the edition number of a map found?
upper and lower left margin It represents the age of the map The higher the number the more recent it was made The initials or abbreviation indicates who made the map
Where is the declination diagram found?
In the lower margin of large scale maps
What is the declination diagram?
It shows the angular relationships of the three norths
Where are the bar scales on a map?
the center of the lower margin
What is a bar scale?
A ruler used to convert map distance to ground distance
What are the usual three units of measure in a bar scale?
They are meters, statute miles, and nautical miles
Where is the contour interval note found?
Usually below the bar scales in the middle of the lower margin
What is a contour interval?
vertical distance of the space between the contour lines. In more recent maps this distance is given in meters instead of feet
Where is the map legend found?
In the lower left margin
What is latitude?
The measure of distance north to south of the equator
What is the starting point of latitude?
The equator
Lines of latitude are also known as?
Parallels because they run parallel to the equator
What type of map does the US military use?
The Universal Transverse Mercator grid (UTM)
What is in the map legend?
The symbols that represent topographical features
How many colors does a map usually have?
5, Black, blue, green, brown, red, and red brown
What do the colors on the map mean?
Black- man-made features/ roads, Blue- water, Green- vegetation, Brown- relief features contour lines, Red Brown- Cultural features such as populated areas, main roads, and on older maps it indicates boundaries
What is longitude?
A measure of distance east to west of the prime meridian
In which direction are the lines of longitude drawn on a map?
North and South
Lines of longitude are also known as what?
Meridians
What portion of the world is a UTM map designed for?
The part of the world between Lat 84 degrees North, and Lat 80 degrees South
What is a basic rule for finding coordinates on a map?
From the left corner of the grid square to the right and then up
How close will you get to a location with an eight digit grid coordinate?
Within 10 meters
What information makes a map useful?
Marginal data
What is the difference between an aerial photograph and a photo map?
A photomap is a reproduction of an aerial map with additional map information added. Much like a topographic map
What is a map overlay and what is on it?
A sheet of clear plastic or transparent paper ith information plotted on it at the same scale as the map
What is a map overlay used for?
Shows current information about friendly and enemy troop positions, as well as any other pertinent data a leader may need to know about a certain area IE landmines, routes, obstacles
Name three types of contour lines?
Index, intermediate, and supplementary Intermediate contour lines fall between the index lines, are finer and not numbered Supplementary lines resemble dashes They show sudden changes in elevation of at least the contour interval
How do index lines differ from the other contour line?
Index lines are heavier, have the elevation number at some point on the line, and occur every fifth line
How is water flow determined on a map?
With a V that points upstream
How are valleys and draws shown on a map?
By V or U shaped contour lines
What is an azimuth?
It’s a direction. A horizontal angle which is measured in degrees or mils from the north
What is a back azimuth?
An azimuth that is 180 degrees in reverse of a given azimuth
How is a back azimuth found?
If a given azimuth is 180 degrees or less you add 180 degrees If the azimuth is 180 degrees or more than subtract 180 degrees
What is resection?
Finding your unknown position by using The back azimuth of two known points. Where they intersect is your position Remember to convert all magnetic azimuths to magnetic
What is intersection?
Finding an unknown point by shooting an azimuth to it from two known points The location where they intersect is location of the unknown point Don’t forget to convert azimuths
Name the five major terrain features on a map?
Hill, Valley, Ridge, Saddle, Depression (Hidden, Valley, Ranch, Salad, Dressing)
What are the minor terrain features?
Draw, Spur, Cliff, Cut, and Fill
Name some types of compasses?
Lensatic, artillery, wrist/pocket, and protractor
What are the common types of compasses used by the military?
The lensatic and artillery compasses
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