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Therapeutic Technique: Using Silence
Gives person time to collect thoughts. Encouraging a person to talk by waiting for the answers.
Therapeutic Technique:
Accepting.
Indicates that the perosn has been understood, Non judgemental.

"Yes..." "Uh-Huh" "I follow you"
Therapeutic Technique:
Giving recognition.
INdictes awareness of change and personal efforts, does not imply good, bad, wrong or right.
"Good Morning" "I notice that youve shaved"
Therapeutic Technique: Offering Self
Offers presence, interest, and a desire to understand. Not offerend to get the person to talk or behave in a specific way.
"i would like to spend some time with you"
Therapeutic Technique:
Ofering General Leads
Allows the patient to take direction iin the discussion Indicates the nurse is interested in what comes next.
"Go On..." "And then" "Tell me about it"
Therapeutic Technique:
Giving Broad Openings
Clarifies that the lead is to be taken by the client. However, the nurse discourages small talk
"Where would you like to begin" "What are you thinking about"
Therapeutic Technique:
Placing the events in time or sequence
Puts events in better perspective. Notes Cause and Effect
"What happened before?" When did this happen?"
Therapeutic Technique: Making Observations
Calls attention to the persons behavior. Encourages the person to notice the behavior to describe thoughts and feelings for mutual understanding.
"you appear tense." "I notice you're biting your lips" "you appear nervous when John enters the room"
Therapeutic Technique:
Encouraging description of perception
increases the nurses understanding of the clients perceptions. Talking about feeling can lessen the need to act them out inappropriately
"What do these voices seem to be saying"
"What is happening now" "Tell me when you feel anxious"
Therapeutic Technique: Encouraging Comparison
Brings out recurring themes in experences or interpersonal relationships Helpls clarify similarities and differences
"Has this ever happened before" "Is this how you felt when..." "Was it something like..."
Therapeutic Technique:
Restating
Repeats the main idea expressed. Gives the client an idea of what has ben communicated. Client can clarify if it has been misunderstood.
Client: I cant sleep. I stay awake all night
Nurse: you have difficulty sleeping?
Therapeutic Technique:
Reflecting
DIrects questions, feelings and ideas back to the client. Encourages client to accept his or her own feelings and ideas.
Client: What should I do about my husbands affair?
Nurse: What do you think you should do?
Therapeutic Technique: Focusing
Concentrates attention on a single point. useful when the client is jumping from topic to topic.
"This point you are making about leaving school seems worth looking at more closely."
"You've mentioned many things, lets go back to..."
Therapeutic Technique:
Exploring
Examines certain ideas, experiences, or relationships more fully if the client chooses not to elaborate by answering no, nurse does not probe or pry.
"Tell me more about that" "WOuld you describe it more fully?" "Could you talk about how it was that you learned your mom was dying of cancer?"
Therapeutic Technique:
GIving information
Makes available facts the person needs. Supplies knowledge from which decisions and conclusions can be made from.
"My purpose of being here is to.." "This medication is for..." "The test will determine..."
Therapeutic Technique: Seeking Clarification
Helps clients clarify their own thoughts and maximizes mutual understanding between the nurse and client.
"Im not sure I'm following you..." "What would you say is the main point of what you just said?" "Give an example of a time you thought everyone hated you."
Therapeutic Technique:
Presenting reality
Indicates what is real. The nurse does not argue or try to convince the client, just describes facts of the situation.
"That was Dr. TOdd, not a man from the mafia." "That was the sound of a car backfiring." "Your mother is not here, I am a nurse."
Therapeutic Technique: Voicing doubt
Undermines the clients beliefs by not reinforcing the exaggerated or false perceptions.
"Isnt that unusual?" "Really?" "thats hard to believe"
Therapeutic Technique: Seeking consensual Validation
Clarifies that both the nurse and the client share mutual undertanding of communications. Helps clients become clearer about what he or she is wearing.
"Tell me whether my understanding agrees with yours"
Therapeutic Technique: Verbalizing the Implied
Puts into concrete terms wht the client implies, making the clients communication more explicit.
CLient: I cant talk to you or anyone else. Its a waste of time.
Nurse: Do you feel that no one undertands you?
Therapeutic Technique:
Encouraging Evaluation
Aids the client in considering people and events from perspective of the clients own set of values.
"How do you feel about..? "What did it mean to you when he said he couldnt stay?
Therapeutic Technique:
Attempting to Translate into Feelings
Responds to the feeling expressed not just the content.
Client: I am dead inside.
Nurse: Are you saying that you feel lifeless? Does life seem meaningless to you?
Therapeutic Technique: Suggesting Collaboration
Emphasizes working with the client, not doing things for the client.
"Perhaps you and I can discover what causes your anxiety." "Perhaps by working together we can come up with some ideas that might improve your communication with your spouse."
Therapeutic Technique: Summarizing
Brings together important points of discussion to enhance understanding.
"Have I got this straight?" "You said that..." "During the past hour you and I have discussed.. "
Therapeutic Technique:
Encouraging Formulation Of a Plan of Action
Alows the client to identify alternative actions for interpersoanl situations the client finds disturbing.
"Wat could you do to let anger out harmlessly?" "The next time this comes up, what might you do to handle it?" "What are some other ways you can approach your boss?"
Obstructive Communication:
Giving Premature Advice
Assumes the nurse knows best and the client cant think for themselves.
"Get out of this situation immediately"
Obstructive Communication:
Minimizing Feelings
Indicated that the nurse in unable to understand or empathize with the client. Here the clients feelings or experiences are being belittled which can make the client feel small or insignificant.
"I know what you mean?" "Things get worse before they get better" "
Obstructive Communication:
Falsely Reassuring
Underrates a persons feelings and belittles concerns.
"You'll do just fine" "Everything is going to be ok" "I wouldnt worry about that"
Obstructive Communication:
Showing nonverbal signs of boredom
Because the client will quickly pick up the nurses disapproval or boredom client may think the nurse disapproves of hir or is bored with the client
Ex: checking watch, rustles papers, avoid eye contact, does not respond, looks annoyed
Obstructive Communication:
Making value judgments
Prevents problem solving, can make the client feel guilty, angry, anxious.
"How come you still smoke when your wife has lung cancer."
Obstructive Communication:
Asking "Why" Questions
IMplies criticism, often makes client feel defensive
"Why did you stop taking your medication?"
Obstructive Communication:
Asking excessive Questions
Results in the clients not knowing which question to answer and possibly being confused. "Hows ur appetite? Are you losing weight? Are you eating enough?"
Obstructive Communication:
Giving Appoval ; Agreeing
Implies the client is doing the right thing, and that not doing so would be wrong. may lead to client focusing on pleasing the nurse not themselves.
"Im proud of you for applying for that job" "i agree with your decision"
Obstructive Communication:
Disapproving ; Disagreeing
Can make a person defensive.
"You reallly should have shown up for the medication group." "I disagree with that"
Obstructive Communication:
Changing the subjuect.
May invalidate the clients feelings and needs.
Client: Id like to die.
Nurse: Did you attend your AA like we discussed?
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