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BLOOD VESSELS FLOW
Heart – Arteries (high way move blood out to body)–Arterioles (Neighborhood, distribute the blood)- Capillaries (parking)—Venules-Veins (highway back to the heart)-Heart
Structure of Blood Vessel Walls
-Tunica adventitia (Tunica externa)
-Tunica media
-Tunica Intima
Tunica adventitia (Tunica externa)
– outside layer of blood vessel – made mostly fibroGen fiber -protect and reinforce the wall
Vasa Vasorum
(control vaso constriction) BV in the tunica externa of large atery and vein
Tunica media
– middle larger smooth muscle and elastin – vaso contriction – smaller vaso dilation – bigger.  Smooth blood flow (ended) *Vasomotor nerve fibers from SNS (vaso dilator)
Tunica Intima
tunica Interna – simple extena
Elastic Arteries = Conducting Arteries
most elastin/ close to the heart/
Muscular Arteries = Distributing Arteries
become muscle ateries (theres tnica media)
Aterioles
Controle blood flow in capillaries bed/ when contrict will short off
Capillaries
smallest blood vessels. Consist just endoternum (short 1mm long)Fx. Allow exchange gasses nutrient, waste and hormone.
Type of Capillaries
Tight Junctions
Intercellular clefts
Intercellular clefts
small breaks b/w the cells allow some liq- solute out in surrounding tissue
Blood-brain barrier
tight junctions complete. (don’t have intracellular)
Fenestrated
– cont./ some endothetial cell have a hole.
-Fenestrations
-LOC:small intestine, kidney, endocrine organs
Sinusoidal
– fewer tight junction. Larger extra cellular cleft Loc: bone marrow and spleen and pshnosodo
Capillary Beds
-Vascular shunt
-Precapillary sphinctgers
Vascular shunt
-connects arteriole and venule (straight thru)
-Terminal arteriole
-True Capillaries
Precapillary sphinctgers
open and close to regulate blood flow
Terminal arteriole
-Metarteriole – Thoroughfare channel –Postacapillary venule
Venules
collect blood from capillary bed
Veins
-return blood in the heart. Thinner wall than arteries and flat.
-Sx. 3 layers, think tunica externa, thin tunica media, and thin tunica intima
large lumen (hole) decreases resistance
65% blood in vein
Venous valves for 1-way flow
arms and legs
Venous sinuses
thin walls
venous abnormalities
-Varicose veins
-Hemorrhoids
Varicose veins
-veins dilate and blood falls on it. Valve don’t work. Poor return circulation.
Hemorrhoids
-type of varicose vein (anal veins)
Vascular Anastomoses
1. Arterial anastomoses
2. collateral channels
3. Atreriovenous anastomoses -
4. Venous anastomoeses.
Arterial anastomoses
atries supply to the same organ to for collateral c hannels
collateral channels
alt blood supply in the same area of a organ common in the heart brain and joint
Atreriovenous anastomoses
Venous anastomoeses
veins come tgogether
BLOOD FLOWS
–ml/min. * FOR ENTIRE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM -> = CARDIAC OUTPUT
BLOOD PRESSURE
mm Hg – measure millimeter in mercury… (force pusing in BV wall)
PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE (PR)
-BLOOD VISCOSITY
-BLOOD VESSEL DIAMETER
-TOTAL BLOOD VESSEL LENGTH
BLOOD VISCOSITY
how thic blood. Move slower
BLOOD VESSEL DIAMETER
affect (PR)
TOTAL BLOOD VESSEL LENGTH
the Longer the vessel it is the more (PR)
RELATIONSHIP B/W FLOW, BP AND RESISTANCE
* BLOOD FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO DIFF. IN PRESSURE B/W 2 POINTS * BLOOD FLOW IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO (PR) – less blood flowing -- > BLOOD FLOW = DIFF IN PRESSURE / (PR)
BLOOD FLOW IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO (PR
less blood flowing
  1. ATERIAL BP
  • *DISTENSIBILITY ( COMPLIANCE) OF THE ATERIES CLOSE TO THE HEART
  • *AMT. OF BLOOD BEING FORCED INTO THEM AT A GIVEN TIME.
PULSE PRESSURE
DIFF B/W SBP AND DBP  *** only measure in after blood flow steady in capillary and vein.
ATHEROSCLEROSI
hard the arteries bcoz of flacks
MEAN ATERIAL PRESSURE (MAP)
DBP+ (PULSE PRSSURE/3)
VENOUS BP. FACTORS AIDING VENOUS RETURN
  1. VALVES
  2. RESPIRATORY PUMP
  3. MUSCULAR PUMP
RESPIRATORY PUMP
MOVES BLOOD
MUSCULAR PUMP
SKELETAL MUSCLE
FACTORS AFFECTING BP
  • CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO)
  • (PR)
  • BLOOD VOL.
CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO)
  1. – how much blood pumping
CO = stroke vol (ml/beat)*heart rate (bmp)
PR
affect bp. Peripheral heart resistance is high and bp is high.
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