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Sodium ranges
135-145 mEq/L
Potassium ranges
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Calcium ranges
Phosphate ranges
2.8-4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium ranges
1.3-2.1 mEq/L
pH ranges
PaCO2 ranges
35-45 mm Hg
Bicarbonate HCO3
20-30 mEq/L
Respiratory acidosis
Low pH
High PaCO2
Metabolic acidosis
Low pH
Low HCO3
Respiratory alkalosis
High pH
Low PaCO2
Metabolic alkalosis
High pH
High HCO3
Manifestations of metabolic alkalosis
Dizziness Irritability Nervousness Confusion Tachycardia Dysrhythmias Nausea vomiting Anorexia Tetany Tremors Tingling in fingers and toes Muscle cramps Seizures Hypo ventilation
Manifestations of respiratory alkalosis
Lethargy Light headed Confusion Tachycardia Dysrhythmias epigastric pain Numbness Tetany Hyperflexia Seizures Hyperventilation
Manifestations of metabolic acidosis
Drowsiness Confusion Headache Coma Hypotension Dysrhythmias Warm flushed skin Diarrhea Abdominal pain Kussmaul respirations
Manifestations of respiratory acidosis
Disorientation Dizziness V-fib Seizures Hypoventilation with hypoxia
S/s of hypermagnesemia
Lethargy Nausea vomiting Loss of deep tendon reflexes Somnolence (strong desire to sleep) Respiratory and cardiac arrest
S/s of hypomagnesemia
Confusion Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes Tremors Seizures
S/s of hyperphosphatemia
Hypocalcemia Muscles problems, tetany Deposits of calcium phosphates in soft tissue
S/s of hypophostatemia
Confusion coma Muscle weakness Renal tubular waste of Ca, Mg, HCO3 Dysrhythmias Decreased stroke volume Osteomalacia (softening of bone) Rhabdomyolysis (rapid breakdown of muscle)
S/s of hypercalcemia
Lethargy Depressed reflexes Decreased memory Altered mental status Anorexia Bone pain Polyuria Stupor Short ST &QT Ventricular dysrhythmias Increased digitalis effect
S/s of hypocalcemia
Fatigue easily
Numbness/tingling in extremities and mouth
Chvostek's (facial contraction)
Trousseau's (carpal spasm)
Laryngeal spasm
Longated ST prolonged QT
S/s of hyperkalemia
Irritablity Anxiety Abdominal cramping Diarrhea Weakness lower extremities Paresthesias (tingling itching burning of skin) Irregular pulse Cardiac arrest Tall T wave Prolonged PR Depressed ST Loss of P wave Wide QRS V-fib V- standstill
S/s of hypokalemia
Fatigue Leg cramps Nausea vomiting Paralytic ileus Soft flabby muscles Decreased reflexes Weak irregular pulse Polyuria Hyperglycemia Depressed ST Flat T wave Presence of U wave Bradycardia Digitalis effect
S/s of hypernatremia
Restlessness Twitching Seizures Coma Increased thirst Flushed skin Swollen tongue Sticky mucosa Hypotension Weight loss Low central venous pressure Shock Pulmonary edema
S/s of hyponatremia
Irritability Dizziness Confusion tremors Seizure Coma Cold clammy skin Tachycardia Thready pulse
S/s of ECF volume excess
Edema JVD HTN polyuria Dyspnea Crackles Muscle spasms Weight gain Seizure Coma
S/s of ECF deficit
Restlessness Thirst Dry mouth Decreased cap refill Poor skin turgor Hypotension Increased pulse Concentrated urine Tachypnea Weakness Weight loss Seizure Coma Shock
Isotonic solution
Equal osmolarity inside and outside the cell
Hypotonic solution
Osmolarity is greater inside the cell
Hypertonic solution
Osmolarity is greater outside the cell
Blue needle
22 gauge, used for general infusions, peds or geri. Hand
Yellow needle
24 gauge used for fragile veins. Hand.
Pink needle
20 gauge used for continuous or intermittant IV therapies. Hand, wrist, forearm, upper arm.
Green needle
18 gauge used for trauma, surgery, or blood. Wrist or forearm or upper arm.
Chloride ranges
96-106 mEq/L
Plasma osmolarity
275-295 mOsm/kg
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