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Role complementarity: Def
~tendency of family members to adopt complentary family roles, ex: more vs less social family members
~considered normative
Symbiotic Family: Def
(Erich Fromm)
members are enmeshed and devoid of individual personalities
Withdrawing Family: Def
(Erich Fromm)
~members indifferent toward each other
~punishment: ritualistic, w/out feeling--or--guilt-provoking, no affection
~OR permissive parenting
~kids derive values from media, peers
Differentiation of Self in families
family members' ability to distinguish between their identities, experiences and other members (v. fusion)
Undifferentiated Family Ego Mass
family members' identities are fused
r'ship in a period of distance > an "outsider" joins with one person in an existing r'ship; family problems typically triangular
~detriangulation: therapists doesn't take sides, encourages each members to take responsibility for their part in family problems
Nuclear Family Emotional Process
patterns of emo forces that operate in families
Emotional Cutoff
unhealthy way of dealing with intergenerational undifferentiation
Sibling Position: Effects
associated w/the development of certain personality characteristics
Family Projection Process
how parents transmit their lack of differentiation unto their children
Multigenerational Transmission Process
the transmission, through the generations, of the family's emo process
Intervention: Questioning
use process questions to explore dynamics of family r'ships; shift focus from blame to take responsibility for their part in family conflict
Communications/Experiential Family Therapy
~sx: maintain stability in family
~unhealthy families: unhealthy comm patterns, change is threat to family system
~alter interactional patterns that maintain sx
Symmetrical Relationships
egalitarian r'ships; roles are mirror images
Circular Model of Causality
bx of different subsystems that reciprocally impact each other
therapist has family or subsystem act out in session how they typically deal with a type of problem
bx cannot be explained using linear model; bx must be seen in complex interaction pattern in the family
Spontaneous Behavior Sequences
when therapist highlights an interaction that is naturally occurring in the moment and assists the family in modifying problem sequences
Strategic Family Therapy (Jay Haley)
~techniques over theory
~communication defines r'ships
~r'ships involve power struggle
~sx are tactics to control, define r'ships
~help pts find alternative ways to define r'ships
~useful w/change resistant families
Strategic Family Therapy Techniques
1. take charge role: therapist maintains control
2. directives: therapist tells pt exactly what to do
3. paradoxical directives: "prescribing the sx"
4. ordeals: make pt's sx too much trouble to continue having
5. restraining: meeting family's resistance; changing slowly
6. out-positioning: have family member act in the extreme way they're perceived
7. reframing
Negative Feedback Loop, or Attentuating
input that maintains the status quo of a system
Positive Feedback Loop, or Amplifying
input that forces a system to change
Multifinality, or Equipotentiality
the same beginning point may lead to different results
different beginning points may lead to the same result
Structural Family Therapy
~therapists are very active in session
~likely to use 1:1 as well as family sessions
~goal: reorganize family to reflect parental hierarchy; create clear, flexible boundaries btwn family members
Permissive Parenting
~few demands, rules, oversight, punishments; permit children to freely express feelings and impulses
~children tend to have trouble resisting impulses and creating structure for themselves
A healthy family has...
1. flexibility
2. consistent structure
3. effective exchange of info
Emotional Cutoff
¤enmeshed family member attempted to break all emo ties to other members
¤unsuccessful technique; SW helps pt to reestablish contact and learn successful techniques for disengaging emo from family
Multi/Intergenerational Approach (Murray Bowen)
¤probs are result of fusion due to inadequate individuation
¤focus on triangles
¤goal of tx: increase differentiation of pts; avoid need for triangles
Sttructural Family Therapy
¤fam org important
¤join w/fam to restructure
¤boundaries and rules: who does what, where, and when
¤enactment of situations: enacting the problem situation during the interview
Communicatoin/Interaction Family Therapy (Virginia Satir)
¤communication theory
¤ examine dysfx family patterns
¤in-vivo therapeutic experiences
¤family roles
¤lots of psychoed
Strategic Family Therapy (Jay Haley)
¤presenting prob is sx of, response to dysfx in fam com
¤solve presenting probl
¤relabeling, reframing, directives, paradoxical instructions
¤relabeling: alter def of bx or redefine it so bx is seen as less neg
¤paradoxical instruction: prescribe sxic bx so pt realizes they can control it; use strength of resistance to change in order to move toward goals
Psychodynamic Approach
¤fam dynamics are reflection of interactions btw in trapsychic factors and societal, cultural, environmental factors
¤aim of tx: greater harmony btwn pt and fam needs
Behavioral Family Therapy Approach
¤social learning and exchange theories
¤bx learned, maintained by contingencies in pt's social environment (fam)
¤goal: teach more effective ways to com by changing consequences or reinforcements of bx
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