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Plasma membrane
(cell membrane, CM, PM)
Plasma Membrane Function
Regulate exchange of materials between cytoplasm and ECF, intercellular communication
Gel-like fluid which contains the organelles, inclusions, & fibers
Cytosol Function
Matrix in which chemical reactions can occur
Contains nucleolus and chromatin. Broken down and rebuilt during mitosis
Nucleus function
Protect DNA. Genetic control center of the cell. Directs protein synthesis.
Nuclear membrane (NM)
Double layer membrane with pores
NM Function
Regulates exchange between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm
Dense non-membranous area within the nucleus composed of protein and RNA
Nucleolus Function
Makes ribosomal RNA components.
Fibrous strands of protein and DNA
Chromatin Function
Genetic code for all life processes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
System of interconnecting membrane forming canals and tubules with cisterna (fluid filled space)
rER Function
Transports materials. Studded with ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs. Manufactures cellular membrane.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
Branching network of tubules usually broken into segments
Lipid synthesis, detoxification, and calcium storage
Golgi Complex (Apparatus)
Round irregular flattened sacs with cisternae Golgi Function
Granular particles composed of protein and RNA. Free floating or attached to RER
Ribosomes Fuction
Interpret the genetic code and synthesize proteins
Round – oval sacs with single membrane
Lysosomes Function
Contain enzymes for intracellular digestion, autophagy (self eating) of worn or broken parts, programmed cell death, and glucose metabolism
Programmed cell death
Spherical membrane vesicles like lysosomes
Peroxisomes Function
Contain enzymes for the detoxification of free radicals, alcohol, and other drugs, oxidize fatty acid, form hydrogen peroxide
Golgi Vesicles (Vacuoles)
Membranous sacs from the Golgi
Golgi Vesicle Function
Become secretory vesicles (carry cell products to apical surface of cell for exocytosis) or secrete their products inside the cell, or become lysosomes
Rod- shaped structure with a double membrane and inner folds called cristae
Mito Function
ATP synthesis
Short cylindrical bodies of microtubules
Centriole Function
Form mitosis spindle during cell division or form basal body of cilia or flagella
Clear area near nucleus where centrioles are found
Centromere Function
Organizing center for formation of microtubules of cytoskeleton and mitotic spindles
Basal body
Unpaired centriole at base of cilia or flagella
Basal Body Function
Point of origin, growth, and anchorage of cilium or flagella, produces axoneme (microtubule core within cilia or flagella)
Long, single whip-like tail
Flagellum Function
Sperm motility
Long hair-like structures on apical cell surface composed of microtubules
Cilia Function
Move substances along cell surface, some sensory roles like hearing, equilibrium, smell)
Short, densely spaced hair-like processes or ridges on cell surface
Increase absorption area of surface, some sensory (hearing, equilibrium, taste)
Cytoskeleton (see below: microfilaments, intermediate, & MT)
Scaffold network of filaments and tubules with in the cell Support scaffolding for attachment of organelles and to maintain cell shape
Thin protein filaments in parallel bundles or dense networks, 6nm
Microfilament function
Support microvilli, muscle contraction, cell motility, endocytosis, and cell division
Intermediate filament
Thicker protein extending throughout the cytoplasm or concentrated at cell-to-cell junctions, 8-10 nm
Intermediate Function
Give shape and support to the cell, anchor cell to each other and to extracellular material, compartmentalizes cell contents
Microtubules (MT)
Hollow protein cylinders 25 nm
MT Funcion
Form axonemes (core) of cilia and flagella, centrioles, basal bodies, and mitotic spindles, enable motility of cell parts, direct organelle and macromolecules to their destination within a cell
Inclusions (not organelles)
Vary by cell: fat droplet, glycogen granules, protein crystals, dust, bacteria, viruses, never enclosed in a membrane
Inclusions Function
Storage products and other products of cellular metabolism, or foreign matter retained in cytoplasm
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