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What is fermentation?
A catabolic process that is a partial degredation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen.
What is aerobic respiration?

  • catabolic pathway

  • consumes oxygen and organic molecules

  • produces ATP.

What two processes does celullar respiration refer to?

  • Aerobic respiration

  • Anerobic respiration

What makes anerobic respiration different from aerobic respiration?
Anerobic respiration is carried out by prokaryotic cells by an element other than oxygen.
What is a reducing agent?
An electron donor in a redox reaction.
What is the oxydizing agent?
The substance that accepts an electron.
What is NAD+?
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (*NImp)
  • a conenzyme
  • Accepts an electron and acts as an electron carrier
  • in the electron transport chain.
What is the electron transport chain?

  • sequence of electron carrier molecules

  • shuttle electrons during the redox reactions

  • make ATP.

What is glycolysis?
Begins the degredation process by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pryuvate.
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation?
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
What is the citric acid cycle?

  • chemical cycle that complete the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycosis

  • by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide

What is the second major stage oin cellular respiration
Citric acid cycle
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
  • formation of ATP by an enzyme directly
  • transferring a phosphate group to ADP
  • from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Upon entering the mitochondria via active transport pryuvate is first converted into what compound?
Acetyl coenzyme A, or acetyl CoA.
What is the citric acid cycle also known as?
Krebs cycle (or tricarboxylic acid cycle).
What is the purpose of the krebs cycle?
It is a metabolic furnace that oxidizes organic fuel derived from pyruvate.
How many ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle?  What process produces the ATP?

  • 4

  • Substrate-level phosphorylation

How many ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule during glycolysis?  How many during the citric acid cycle?

  • 2 during glycolysis

  • 2 during the citric acid cycle

How is energy gained in cellular respiration?
By transferring electrons (Hydrogens) from organic molecules to oxygen.
Paired endergonic-exergonic reactions are known as?
Redox reactions.
At each step of cellular respiration what happens?
Breakdown portion is oxidized and NAD+ reduced to NADH.
Glycolysis converts what into pyruvate?
Glucose.
Passive transport move molecules ______ the concentration gradient and require (energy or no energy).

  • down

  • no energy

When you stick your fingers into briny water and they prune, with respect to your body what type of condition are your cells experiencing?
Hypotonicity.
What is the electron transport chain?
A sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Why is iron a necessary trace element needed in the human body?
Because in the electron transport chain an iron-sulfur protein and cytosomes are necessary to shuttle electrons.
What are cytocromes?
  • iron-containing protein
  • component of electron transport chains
  • in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells
  • in plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells.
What is the purpose of the electron tranpsort chain?
It eases the fall of electrons from food to oxygen, releasing energy in managable amounts.
How does the miochondrion couple electron transport and energy release to ATP synthesis?
By a mechanism called chemiosmosis.
What is ATP synthase?
A complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port through which protons diffuse.
What does ATP synthase do with chemiosmosis and adjacent electron transfer chains?
They use the energy from hydrogen ions concentration gradient to make ATP.
Where are ATP synthases found?

  • Inner mitochnodrial membrane for eukaryotic cells.

  • Plasma membrane of prokaryotes.

What does ATP synthase work like?
An ion pump in reverse.
What does ATP synthase make ATP from?

  • ADP

  • Inorganic phosphate

What is chemiosmosis?
  • The process in which energy is generated from the hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane
  • used to drive cellular work
What turns the ATP synthase?
The flow of protons.
Describe the sequence in which most energy flows in respiration.
Glucose → NADH → Electron Transport Chain → Proton-Motive Force → ATP.
What are the three main departments in metabolism?

  • Glycolysis

  • Citric Acid Cycle

  • Electron Transport Chain

Where does most of the ATP generation in respiration come from?
Oxidative phosphorylation.
What are the two mechanisms that can oxidize organic fuel and generate ATP without the use of oxygen?

  • Anaerobic respiration

  • Fermentation

In what process that generates ATP without oxygen, is the electron transport chain not present?
Fermentation.
The products of glycolysis are _________ ?

  • Pyruvate

  • ATP

  • NADH

Acetyl-CoA goes into the citric acid cycle to produce ________ ?
ATP, NADH, FADH
In what organelle does cellular respiration begin?
Cytoplasm
What is a hydrogen gradient?
(AKA electrochemical gradient) A spatial variation of both electrical potential and chemical concentration across a membrane.
ATP synthase is involved in which process?
Chemiosmosis.
What does ATP synthase used to create ATP?

  • ADP

  • Phosphate group

Mitochondria christe is also known as?
Inner Mitcondrial Membrane
What is involved in the first five steps of glycolysis?
It is an endergonic process that requires ATP input.
What is involved in the last five steps of glycolysis?
It is an exergonic process that make ATP and NADH.
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