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alimentary canal

gastrointestinal tract
continuous tube beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus
digestive system functions
digestion, aborpution and elmination
digestion
the process by which food is changed in the mouth, stomach, and intestines by chemical, mechanical, and physical action so the body may absorb nutrients
digestive enzymes
break down complex nutrients by increasing chemical reations
absorpution
the process in which nutrient material is taken into the bloodstream or lymph and travels to all cells of the body.
What valuable nutrients are utilized for energy, growth and developement for the body?
amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and glycerol
complex protiens
broken down into simple amino acids
complicated sugars
are reduced to glucose
triglycerides
are broken down into fatty acid and glycerol
Digestive system
mouth



  • breaks down food by action of teeth, moistens and lubricates food with saliva

  • food formed into a bolus


teeth
serve as organs of mastication
pharynx
  • passageway for both respiration and digestion
  • muscular constrictions move the bolus into the esophagus
esophagus
moves food by peristalsis down the esophagus into the stomach
stomach
reduces food to a digestable state, converts food to a semi liquid form
small instestine
digests and absorbs food, nutrients absorbed into tiny capillaries and lymph vessels in the walls of small intestine and trasmitted to body cells via circulatory system
large inestine
removes water from fecal material, stores and then emilinates waste from the body via the rectum and anus
salivary glands
secrete saliva to moisten and lubricate food
liver

  • changes and stores glucose to glycogen

  • desaturates fats

  • assists in protien catabolism

  • manufatures bile, fibrinogen, prothrobmbin, heparin, and blood proteins

  • stores vitamins

  • produces heat

  • detoxifies substances

gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile
pancreas
  • secretes pancreatic juice into the small intestine
  • contains cells that produce digestive enzymes
  • secretes insulin and glucagon
anabolism
building up of the body stubstance on the contstructive phase of metabolism
anorexia
lack of appetite
appendectomy
surgical excision of the appendix
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix. A point if tenderness in acute appendicitis is known as McBurney's point, about 1 to 2 in. about the anterosuperior spine of the ilium on a line between the ilium and the umbilicus
bilirubin
orange colored bile pigment produced by the separation of hemoglobin into parts that excreted by the liver cells
black hair tongue
the tongue is covered by hairlike papillae entagled with threads produced by aspergillus niger or candida albicans fungi caused by poor oral hygiene and/or overgrowth of fungi due to antibiotic therapy
bowel
intestine
buccal
pertaining to the cheek
catabolism
  • a casting down
  • a breaking of complex substances into more basic elements
cellac
pertaining to the abdomen
cheilosis
abnormal condition of the lip as seen in riboflavin and other B-complex deficienceies
cholecystectomy
surgical excision of the gallbladder
cholecystitis
imflammation of the galbladder
chyle
milky fluid of intestinal digestion composed of lymph and emulsified fats
cirrhosis
  • chronic degenerative liver disease characterized by changes in the lobes
  • parenchymal cells and the lobules are inflitrated with fat
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon via colonoscope
constipation
infrequent passage of unduly hard and dry feces; difficult defecation
Crohn's disease
chronic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract but most commonly occurs in the ileum
defecate
evactatuion on the bowels
deglutition
act or process of swallowing
dentalgia
toothache; pain in the tooth
dentist
one who specializes in dentistry
diarrhea
frequent passage of unformed watery stools
dysentery
intestinal disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane
dysoeosia
difficulty in digestion; indigestion
dysophagia
difficulty swallowing
emesis
vomiting
enteric
pertaining to the small intestine
enteritis
imflammation of the small intestine
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