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1. What develops from the intermediate mesoderm?
A: Both gonads and kidneys develop adjacent to each other on either side of dorsal aorta from intermediate mesoderm and are primarily retroperitoneal
2. What is the subdivision of gut tube into which all kidney ducts dump?
A: urogenital sinus (bladder)
3. Discuss mesonephric duct and testes.
A: Testes “steal” mesonephric duct. Mesonephric duct dumps into inferior bladder region. Under hormonal influence, testes “steal” it.
4. What happens with the mesonephric duct with females?
A: Due to absence of testosterone, mesonephric duct just regresses
5. What happens embryologically to the middle kidney in males? In females?
A: Middle kidney regresses in both.
6. What is the kidney formed from?
A: After middle kidney regresses, the “new” kidney, the metanephros, develops in pelvic region and ascends
7. What does the ureter derive from?
A: from the “new” metanephric duct. It develops from the kidney and connects to superior bladder region
8. What “new” ducts do females produce for gonads?
A: the paramesonephric ducts which become the fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper 2/3 vagina
9. Where do both M and F gonads migrate
A: caudally into the pelvis. M’s just go farther
10. What does the ductus deferens derive from?
A: mesonephric ducts
11. What is gubernaculum?
A: soft connective tissue. In males, this anchors the testes in the scrotum. In females, it still ends at the female homologue of the scrotum (the labia majora).
12. What is the ovarian ligament?
A: gubernaculum that attaches from ovaries to the uterus
13. What is the round ligament of the uterus?
A: gubernaculum that attaches from uterus to labia majora
14. As gonads migrate anteriorly, what do they take with them?
A: their peritoneal covering
15. What is the tunica vaginalis?
A: peritoneum in scrotum adjacent to testes
16. What is the broad ligament?
A: ovaries and associated ducts covered with sheet of peritoneum
17. What supplies the testes?
A: testicular a,v,n. Arterial blood cooled by veinous plexus in counter-current exchange
18. What are the spermatic cord derivatives of abdominal mm/fascia layers?
A: external oblique: external inguinal ring and external spermatic fascia. Internal oblique: cremaster mm and fascia. Transversalis fascia: Internal inguinal ring and internal spermatic fascia.
19. What does the epididymis receive?
A: drainage from seminiferous tubules of testes – spermatozoa
20. At ejaculation where do sperm drain?
A: into ductus deferens
21. What do we mean in reference to “point and shoot”?
A: parasympathetic – erection Sympathetic – ejaculation
22. What are ovaries?
A: almond-shaped, approx 6cm volume. They are paired stxs lateral to uterus close to lateral pelvic wall in ovarian fossa.
23. What is the broad ligament?
A: It is a double-fold of peritoneum that attaches ovaries to uterus (inferior to ovarian ligament) and is called the mesovarium. From the ovarian ligament to uterine tube, it is called the mesosalpinx
24. What are the ovaries bounded by posteriorly?
A: ureter and internal iliac a
25. What is the suspensary ligament of ovary?
A: attaches to tubal extremity of ovary. It contains ovarian vessels and nerve
26. What is lymphatic drainage of ovaries?
A: via lumboaortic and pelvic lympth nodes
27. What is the purpose of the ovary?
A: oocyte development and release (in cortex) and endocrine bland (both cortex and medulla)
28. Is there a direct connection between the ovary and uterine tube?
A: NO. Ovulation releases oocyte by ovarian rupture into peritoneal cavity and fimbriae of uterine tube guide oocyte into uterine tube
29. Where does fertilization usually occur?
A: occurs immediately after ovulation, mostly in uterine tube or at or near fimbriae
30. Where does an ectopic pregnancy occur?
A: occurs when fertilized oocyte is not swept into tube. Develops outside of uterus
31. What is a tubal pregnancy?
A: when implantation occurs in uterine tube. Is life-threatening as rupture can cause hemorrhage and maternal death
32. What is the uterus formed from?
A: paired paramesonephric ducts
33. What is the uterus?
A: hollow, thick-walled muscular organ between bladder and rectum. Has long axis almost at R angles to vagina. Is composed of body, fundus, and cervix
34. What innervates uterus?
A: superior hypogastric plexus for pain and sympathetic nn
35. What is a bicornate uterus?
A: result of incomplete fusion of paramesonephric ducts. Not incompatible w/pregnancy but may be a contributing factor in infertility
36. What is the cervix normally plugged by?
A: Mucous plug except around ovulation
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