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1. What is the pevlic girdle composed of?
A: paired os coxae “innominate” + sacrum + coccyx
2. Which pelvic bones are a part of the axial skeleton?
A: sacrum and coccyx
3. Which pelvic bones are a part of appendicular skeleton?
A: os coax (attaches to proximal limb bone)
4. What is the fcn of the pelvic bones?
A: provide anchor for skeletal mm attachments, weight-bearing thru sacrum & hip joints, as well as support for lower abdominal viscera.
5. The os coxa is composed of what 3 elements?
A: ilium, ishium, and pubis, separated by tri-radiate cartilage at birth.
6. How is the os coxa different at birth, at 7-8 yrs, at 8-9 yrs, at 16-18 yrs, and 15-25 yrs?
A: birth – ilium, ishium, and pubis separated by tri-radiate cartilage. 7-8 yrs – pubis fuses to ishium. 8-9 yrs – the 3 acetabular centers appear. 16-18 yrs – triradiate cartilage fuses. 15-25 yrs – 2dnry centers fuse.
7. What happens at puberty to the os coxa?
A: 2ndry ossification centers appear => iliac crest, ishial tuberosity, pubic tubercle, and ASIS
8. What does the greater (false) pelvis consist of?
A: iliac flanges & sacral base superior to complete pelvic ring
9. What does the lesser (true) pelvis consist of?
A: true basin bordered by continuous circumferential ring of bone
10. What is the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet) composed of?
A: pubis + ilium + sacrum at level w/superior pubis
11. What is the AP diameter?
A: aka true conjugate diameter – from sacrum to pubis
12. What is the transverse diameter?
A: max bi-iliac distance
13. What is the oblique diameter iliopubic eminence ?
A: contralateral sacro-iliac joint
14. What does the inferior aperature (pelvis outlet) consist of?
A: between medial borders of ishial tuberosities + coccyx
15. Since the pelvic inclination appears “tilted” anteriorly, the pubis is thus positioned?
A: anterio-inferior
16. How is the ishium positioned?
A: inferio-posterior
17. How is the ilium positioned?
A: superior-lateral
18. What serves as an attachment for limb muscles of the bum and hip?
A: iliac blade
19. What serves as attachment for inguinal ligament?
A: ilium
20. What fcn does ilium serve?
A: weigh support through superior acetabulum & sacro-iliac joint (iliac pillar)
21. What has an extended level arm for attachment of limb mm of posterior thigh and lateral rotators of the hip?
A: ishium
22. What serves as posterior attachment of levator ani mm?
A: ishium
23. Where do adductor mm of thigh attach?
A: pubis
24. Where is the inferior attachment of the inguinal ligament?
A: at pubic tubercle
25. What are 3 joints of the pelvis?
A: pubic symphysis, femoro-acetabular joint, and sacro-iliac joint
26. What is known as the “hip” joint?
A: the femoro-acetabular joint
27. What is unique about the SI joint?
A: anterior portion is synovial joint with hyaline cartilage but posterior portion is fibrous; sinusoidal
28. What is the pubic symphysis?
A: midline cartilaginous joint uniting superior rami of L and R pubic bones
29. What is the medial face of pubic symphysis consist of?
A: medial face is covered with hyaline cartilage with a significant fibro-cartilaginous interpubic disc intervening between surfaces
30. When does the pubic symphysis “fuse”?
A: in late 20s to early 30s
31. What are dorsal parturition pits?
A: result from disruption of dorsal attachment of pubic ligaments during parturition. Can also be found in obese
32. What are some problems that can occur in SI joint?
A: a) degenerative changes common w/aging – pitting and cyst formation b) can completely fibrose/ossify with age c) premature fusion of SI jt w/ankylosing spondylytis d) can cause pain post-partum due to misalignment
33. What does the dimple landmark on your butt indicate?
A: center of the SI joint a) level of 2nd sacral segment b) level of end of dural sac c) posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS)
34. What do the ligaments in the pelvis do?
A: they surround the SI joint to prevent anterior-rotation of sacrum at SI joint
35. Where does sacrotuberous attach?
A: sacrum to ishial tuberosity
36. Where does sacrospinous attach?
A: sacrum to spine of ishium
37. What are some other misc ligaments of pelvis?
A: ventral sacroiliac ligs, long and short posterior SI ligs, posterior sacro-coccygeal ligs, and ilio-lumbar ligs
38. What relation does the levator ani mm have to the sacrospinous lig?
A: levator ani mm attach posteriorly along length of sacrospinous ligament internal to pelvis
39. Where does the rectus abdominus attach in pelvis?
A: pubic tubercle
40. Where does the inguinal ligament attach in pelvis?
: ASIS to pubic tubercle
41. Where does external and internal oblique mm attach in pelvis?
A: to iliac crest
42. Where does quadratus lumborum m attach in pelvis?
A: to internal iliac crest
43. Where does erector spinae attach in pelvis?
A: to iliac tuberosity, at posterior iliac crest
44. Where does levator ani attach in pelvis?
A: on pubis and ishial spines
45. What is the purpose of the inferior derivative mm of the hypaxial mm?
A: closes pelvic outlet. These mm primarily attach to coccyx and pubix, forming a supportive sling for pelvic viscera (prevent visceral prolapse)
46. Pelvic diaphragm is aka?
A: levator ani mm
47. What is the levator ani complex composed of?
A: 1. puborectalis m 2. pubococcygeus m 3. iliococcygeus
48. What is the posterior portion of the pelvic diaphragm?
A: coccygeus m (spans ishial spine to coccyx)
49. How does the fetal head pass through the pelvic inlet and outlet?
A: head engages in inlet w/fetal head A-P axis oriented laterally on maternal pelvis. Then will rotate 90 degrees during pushing w/fetal head A-P axis oriented A-P on maternal pelvis.
50. What is the diagonal conjugate?
A: distance between inferior pubic arch and sacral promontory. VITAL distance for passage of fetal head during parturition
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