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BILIRUBIN
Orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile
BOLUS
Mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
EXOCRINE
Denotes a gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
SPHINCTER
Circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
ANOREXIA
Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
APPENDICITIS
Inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ASCITES
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
BORBORYGMUS
Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
CACHEXIA
Physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS & cancer
CHOLELITHIASIS
Presence of formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
CIRRHOSIS
Scarring and dysfuntion of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
COLIC
Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
CROHN DISEASE
Chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
DEGLUTITION
Act of swallowing
DYSENTERY
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
DYSPEPSIA
Epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
DYSPHAGIA
Inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
ERUCTATION
Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
FECALITH
Fecal concretion
FLATUS
Gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
HALITOSIS
Offensive, or "bad," breath
HEMATEMESIS
Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
Symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
MALABSORPTION SYNDROME
Symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
MELENA
Passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
OBESITY
Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
MORBID OBESITY
Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
OBSTIPATION
Severe constipation; may be caused by intestinal obstruction
ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA
Formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
PERISTALSIS
Progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
PYLORIC STENOSIS
Stricture of narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an onstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
REGURGITATION
Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
STEATORRHEA
Passage of fats in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
ENDOSCOPY
Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
[ENDOSCOPY] UPPER GI
Endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
[ENDOSCOPY] LOWER GI
Endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy)
HEPATITIS PANEL
Panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus- hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV)- causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
LIVER FUNCTION TESTS (LFTs)
Group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
SERUM BILIRUBIN
Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
STOOL CULTURE
Test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
STOOL GUAIAC
Applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult (trade name of a modified guaiac test)
BARIUM ENEMA (BE)
Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
BARIUM SWALLOW
Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series
CHOLECYSTOGRAPHY
Radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY (ERCP)
Endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors
PERCUTANEOUS TRANSHEPATIC CHOLANGIOGRAPHY (PTCP)
Radiographic examination of bile duct structures
SIALOGRAPHY
Radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
ULTRASONOGRAPHY (US)
Test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to analyze the reflected echoes from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echogram
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