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The digestive system is also called the ___ system.
gastrointestinal
What is the abbreviation for gastrointestinal?
GI
The gastrointestinal system consists of a digestive tube called the ___ or ___ .
GI tract, alimentary canal
The gastrointestinal tract extends from the ___ to the ___ .
mouth, anus
The gastrointestinal tract varies in size & structure in what several (8) distinct regions?
  • mouth
  • pharnyx (throat)
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  • small intestine
  • large intestine
  • rectum
  • anus
Food passing along the gastrointestinal tract is mixed with digestive ___ and broken down into ___ molecules, which are absorbed in the bloodstream.
enzymes, nutrient
The process of digestion begins in the ___ .
mouth
The mouth, also known as the ___ or ___ , is a receptacle for food.
oral cavity, buccal cavity
The mouth is formed by what (6) parts of the body?
  • cheeks
  • lips
  • teeth
  • tongue
  • hard palate
  • soft palate
What is the medical word for cheeks?
bucca
Saliva contains important digestive ___ that help begin the chemical breakdown of food.
enzymes
In the mouth, food is broken down ___ (by the teeth) and ___ (by saliva), and then formed into a ___.
mechanically, chemically,
bolus
Define MASTICATION.
the mechanical breakdown of food
Teeth are covered by a hard ___ , giving them a smooth, white appearance.
enamel
Beneath the enamel is ___ , the main structure of the teeth.
dentin
The innermost part of the tooth is the ___ , which contains nerves & blood vessels.
pulp
The teeth are embedded in pink, fleshy tissue known as ___.
gums
What is the medical word for "gums"?
gingiva
The ___ assists the chewing process by manipulating the bolus of food during chewing & moving it to the back of the mouth for swallowing.
tongue
Define DEGLUTITION.
the act of swallowing
Aside from the chewing & swallowing process, the tongue also aids in ___ & ___.
speech production, taste
Rough projections on the surface of the tongue called ___ contain taste buds.
papillae
The (4) basic taste sensations registered by chemical stimulation of the taste buds are:
  • sweet
  • sour
  • salty
  • bitter
Sense of taste is intricately linked with sense of ___ , making taste perception very complex.
smell
The hard palate is also known as the ___ portion, forming the roof of the mouth.
anterior
The soft palate is also known as the ___ portion, forming the roof of the mouth.
posterior
The soft palate, which forms a partition between the mouth and the ___ , is continuous with the hard palate.
nasopharynx
The entire oral cavity, like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, is lined with ___.
mucous membranes
The bolus is pushed by the tongue into the ___ & it is guided by the soft, fleshy, V-shaped structure called the ___.
pharynx (throat), uvula
The lowest portion of the pharynx divides into two tubes, one which leads to the lungs, called the ___.
trachea
The lowest portion of the pharynx divides into two tubes, one which leads to the stomach, called the ___.
esophagus
The small flap of cartilage that folds back to cover the trachea during swallowing, is called the ___.
epiglottis
The ___ is a saclike quadrant located in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdominal cavity.
stomach
The stomach extends from the ___ to the first part of the small intestine, the ___.
esophagus, duodenum
The ___ , the terminal portion of the esophagus, is composed of muscle fibers that constrict once food has passed into the stomach.
lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
The lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter prevents the stomach contents from ___ back into the esophagus.
regurgitating
The ___ of the stomach is the large central portion of the stomach.
body
The ___ is the upper portion of the stomach.
fundus
The ___ is the funnel-shaped terminal portion of the stomach, where most digestion takes place.
pylorus
The ___ of the stomach & the ___ are mainly storage areas of the stomach.
body, fundus
The interior lining of the stomach, composed of mucous membranes, contains numerous macroscopic longitudinal folds that gradually unfold as the stomach fills, called ___.
rugae
Located within the rugae, digestive glands produce ___ & ___.
hydrochloric acid (HCI), enzymes
Chyme slowly leaves the stomach through the ___ to enter the duodenum.
pyloric sphincter
Food is propelled through the entire gastrointestinal tract by coordinated, rhythmic muscle contractions called ___.
peristalsis
The small intestine is a coiled, (how long is the small intestine?) tube that begins at the ___ & extends at the ___.
20-foot long, pyloric sphincter,
large intestine
The ___ is the uppermost segment of the small intestine, which is about how long?
duodenum, 10 inches long
The ___ is the middle segment of the small intestine, which is approximately how long?
jejunum, 8 feet long
The ___ is the lower segment of the small intestine, which is about how long?
ileum, 12 feet long
Digestion is completed in the small intestine with the help of additional enzymes & secretions from the ___ & ___.
pancreas, liver
Nutrients in chyme are absorbed through microscopic, finger-like projections called ___.
villi
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