by mjmed


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B1 - Name, use, diseases
Thiamine, cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase, branched chain AA dehydrogenase
Ds- Wernicke-korsakoff, dry beriberi(polyneuritis, symm. muscle wasting), wet beriberi(dilated cardiomyopathy, edema)
B2 - Name, use, diseases
Riboflavin, FAD and FMN,
ds- cheilosis(inflamm and scaling at lips) and cornmeal vascularization
B3 - Name, use, diseases
Niacin, part of NAD, NDAP, from tryptophan, synth needs B6,
ds- def=Pellagra -diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
Excess- facial flushing - pharm. doses for hyperlipidemia
B5 - Name, use, diseases
Pantothenate - essential part of CoA for fatty acid synthase and ACoA
Ds- dermatitis, etneritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
B6 - Name, use, diseases
Pantothenate - converted to pyridoxal P04, cofactor in transamination (ALT/AST), decarosylations, glycogen phophyorlyase, heme synth, required for niacin synth from tryptophase
Def- convulsions, irritablility, perpiheral neruopathy, sideroblastic anemias
B12 - Name, use, diseases
cobalamin - cofactor for homocystein methyltransferase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
Ds- macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia, hyperseg PMNs, neuo sx, def from sprue, enteritis, pernicoius anemia, gastric bipass, Crohns
Folic acid - Name, use, diseases
folic acid- coverted to tetrahydrofolate - a conezyme for 1C transfer rxns, synth of DNA and RNA bases
Ds- macrocytic/megaloblastic anemia WITHOUT NEURO sx,  phenytoin, sulfonamides, etc can cause
S-adeosyl-methionine- Name, use, diseases
SAM- trasnfers methyl units, dependent on B12 and folate, required to convert NE to epi
Biotin- Name, use, diseases
Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes - pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate to oxaloacetate)
ACoA carboxylase (aCoA to malonyl CoA)
Propionyl CoA carboxylase (PCoA to Methylmalonyl CoA (all 3-4C)
Ds- rel rare, dermatitis, alopetia, enteritis, caused by AB use or excessive ingestion of raw eggs
Vit. C- Name, use, diseases
Ascorbic acid - antioxidant, helps iron absorption, hydroxylates prline and lysine, necessary to converte dopa to NE
DS- scurvey - swollen gums, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing
Vit D- Name, use, diseases
D2-ergocalciferol- plants, used as pharm agent
D3-cholecalciferol- milk, sun exposed skin
25-ohD3- storage
1,25OH2, D3- active form
Increases intestinal abs of Ca and Po4, increases bone respoption
Def- rickets, osteomalacia
Excess- hyperCa, Hyper calcinuria, seen in sarcoidosis
Vit E - Name, use, diseases
Antioxidant for erythrocytes, def- increases fragility of erythrocytes (hemolytic anemia), weakness, neurodysfunction
Vit K - Name, use, diseases
Catalyzes gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on clotting proteins, synthed by intestinal flora
-Factors II, VII, IX, X, Prot C and S
Ds- neonate hem w/incr PT, PTT but normal bleeding time
Zinc - Name, use, diseases
Essential for activity of 100+ enzymes, diabetes
Ds- delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair, dysgeusia, anosmia, may predispose to etoh cirrhosis
How is ETOH metabolized and what is the limiting reagent?
How does disulfiram work?
Etoh Dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde, then acetaldhyde dehodrogenase  to acetate
-NADH
-DIsulfiram block s the second step, = super hangover
How does ethoanol cause hypoglycemia?
Increases teh NADH/NAD ratio in liver, shifts pyruvate to lactate and OAA to malate, inchibiting gluconeogenesis
Kwashiorkor v marasmus
K-protein def, can b ehelped (small child, swollen belly)
M-total calorie deprivation, probably death
What metabolic processes take place in teh mito?
oxidative phosphorylation, TCA cycle, AcoA production, Fatty acid B oxidation
What metabolic processes take place in the cytopalsm?
Glycolysis, FA synth, HMP shunt, prot synth, steroid synth
Which met processes take place in both the mito and the cytoplasm?
Heme synth, urea cycle, gluconeogenesis
Hexokinase- location and fx
Ubiquitous in cells, high affininty, low capacity glucose phosphorylator, feedback inh by G-6-P, neg feedback by ATP, citrate
Glucokinase - location and fx
Liver and B cells of panc, low aff, high capacity, induced by insulin, has a high Vmax, no direct feedback inh, phophorylates excesss glucose to sequester in liver
What are glycolytic enzyme defs assoc with?
Hemolytic anemias, can''t maintain Na/K atpaase, leads to RBC swelling and lysis, 9%% from pyruvate kinase
What does arsenic inhibit, what are teh sx?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (needs b cofactors and lipoic acid), is activated by excercise
Arsenic INHIBITS lipoic acid
Findings - Vom, rice water stools, garlic breath
Pyruvate metabolism- what are the 4 thigns it can go into, what can it come back from
From glucose, to pyruvate to Ala (and back via ALT), Lactate and back (viaLDH w NAD), oxaloacetate (via pyruvate carboxylase), and to AcoA via Pyruvate dehydrogenase (using an NAD and B1, releaseing a CO2)
What is the Cori cycle, what does it do, and under what circumstances
Allows lactate generated during anaerobic met to undergo hepatic gluconeogenesis and become a source of glucose for muscle and rbcs, lose 4 net ATP/cycle, shift met burden to liver
Citrate Isn't Ketogenic, Succs cause it Succs innately, leading to fuming, malace, ox attacks
Citrate, isocitrate, alpha ketoglutarate, succinyl coa, succinate, fumarate, malate, oxaloacetate
What is produced in the TCA cycel?
3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, 1 GTP per acoa = 12aTP/acoa (2x per glucose)
Which poisons sof oxidative phosphorylation inhibit electron transport?
Rotenone, CN-, antimycin A, CO
What are the two main enzymes in the HMP shunt, which is reversable, which is oxidateive?
Glucos 6 p dehydrogenase and transketolases, the G6PD is irreversible and oxidative, the trasnketolases are nonox and reversible
what are heinz bodies and bite cells a sign of?
g6pd deficiency (oxidixed hb and macrophage bites to get rid of it)
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