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free recall task
where someone is free to recall the items of a list in any order
primacy effect
a superior recall of the early portion of a list
recency effect
a superior recall of the end portion of a list
encoding
the process of moving information from one memory stage to the next
storage
maintaining information in a memory stage
retrieval
bringing info from long term to short term memory
what are the three stages of memory?
1. sensory 2. short term 3. long term
sensory memory (SM)
the set of sensory registers, one for each of our senses, that serve as holding places for incoming sensory information until it can be attended to, interpreted, and encoded into short-term memory.
iconic memory
the visual sensory register that holds an exact copy of the incoming visual input but only for a brief period of time: less than a second. ex: seeing a bolt of lightning: it's not really a singular, continuous bolt, it's three or more bolts that overlap in our iconic memory. We then perceive a single flash of lightning.
temporal integration procedure
An experimental procedure in which two meaningless visual patterns that produce a meaningful pattern if integrated are presented sequentially with the time delay between their presentations varied.
Sperling's full-report procedure
An experimental procedure in which, following the brief presentation of a matrix of unrelated consonants (ex: numbers), the participant has to attempt to recall all of the letters in the matrix.
Sperling's partial-report procedure
An experimental procedure in which, following the brief presentation of a matrix of unrelated consonants (ex: numbers), the participant is given an auditoy
short-term memory (STM)
the memory stage with a small capacity (7 +/- 2 chunks) and a brief duration (<30 seconds) that we are consciously aware of and in which we do our problem solving, reasoning, and decision making.
memory span task
a memory task in which the participant is given a series of items one at a time and then has to recall the items in the order in which they were presented.
memory span
the average number of items someone can remember. We remember 5 to 9 chunks of information on memory span tasks.
chunks
units in a person's memory. A chunk can be different things or groups of things, such as letters vs. words .
distractor task
a memory task in which information is presented and then the participant is distracted from rehearsing the information for some time. then the participant has to recall the information.
maintenance rehearsal
a type of rehearsal in short-term memory in which the information is repeated over and over again in order to maintain it.
long-term memory
the memory stage in which information is stored for a long period of time (maybe permanently) and whose capacity is unlimited. brain review: The trillions of possible synaptic connections in the brain represent the capacity of long-term memory.
explicit (declarative) memory
Long-term memory for factual knowledge and personal experiences. This type of memory does not require conscious awareness or the need to make declarations about the information remembered.
semantic memory
explicit memory for factual knowledge ex: remembering who George Washington was.
episodic memory
explicit memory for personal experiences ex: remembering your first date.
implicit (non-declarative) memory
Long-term memory for procedural motor and cognitive tasks and conditioning effects. This type of memory does not require conscious awareness or the need to make declarations about the information remembered. ex: remembering how to ride a bike
procedural memories
implicit memory for cognitive and motor tasks that have a physical procedural aspect to them.
amnesic
a person with severe memory deficits following brain surgery or injury.
anterograde amnesia
the inability to form new long-term memories for events due to surgery or trauma. Explicit memories formed before surgery or trauma are left intact.
retrograde amnesia
the disruption of memory for the past before brain surgery or trauma.
infantile/child amnesia
when adults cant remember things before they were 3 years old.
automatic memory processing
memory processing that happens subconsciously
effortful memory processing
memory processing that happens consciously
levels of processing theory
a theory of information processing in memory that assumes that semantic leads to better long term memory. three levels of processing: 1. physical 2. acoustic (sound) 3. semantic (meaning)
elaborative rehearsal
where incoming information is related to information in long term memory in order to remember it
self-reference effect
being easier to remember information that you have related to yourself
encoding specificity principle
proposes that the cues present during encoding serve as best cues for retrieval.
state-dependent memory
memory is better when we are in the same physiological state as encoding and retrieval.
mood-dependent memory
memory is better when our mood is the same during encoding and retrieval.
mood-congruence effect
memory is better for experiences that are congruent with a person's current mood.
mnemonic
a memory aid
method of loci (locations)
a mnemonic in which you associate items you want to encode to different locations that are well known or available for retrieval.
peg-word system
a mnemonic in which you remember things to a song/jingle
spacing effect
better long term memory for spaced study instead of cramming
what are the three methods to measure our ability to retrieve info?
  1. recall
  2. recognition
  3. relearning
recall
reproducing information from memory
recognition
a form of retrieval where we identify information from memory in the presence of retrieval cues.
relearning
the measure of the amount of time saved when learning info for the second time.
encoding failure theory
proposes that we don't forget but that information was never encoded into memory
storage decay theory
proposes that we forget because memory is decayed overtime unless the information is used often.
interference theory
proposes that we forget because information in our memory interferes with each other, not allowing us to retrieve it.
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information.
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of learning on the retrieval of old information
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