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Axial Skeleton = skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage (ribs, costal cartilages and sternum)
Appendicular Skeleton = Pectoral/Shoulder Girdles (ech w/ Scapula and clavicle), bones of upper limbs, pelvic girdle (two hip bones) and the bones of lower limbs
Bone projections that serve as sites of attachment for muscles (via tendons) and ligaments
  1. Tuberosity
  2. Trochanter
  3. Tubercle
  4. Epicondyle
Bone projections that help form joints
  1. Head (a rounded projection)
  2. Condyle (wheel shaped)
a canal like passageway through a bone
an air filled cavity within a bone
shallow (basin-like) depression in a bone (often serves as an articular surface)
Foramen (pl. = Foramina)
an opening in a bone
The skull is made up of what bones
cranial and facial bones
Frontal Bone
most of forehead - frontal (paranasal) sinuses - include the "supraorbital margin of frontal bone"
Parietal Bones
most of superior and lateral walls of the skull - meet at the sagittal suture and meet frontal bone at coronal suture
Temporal Bones
inferolateral walls of cranium - meet parietal bones at the squamous sutures
specific parts of Temporal Bones
  1. External acoustic meatus
  2. mandibular fossa
  3. mastoid process
  4. zygomatic process of temporal bone
  5. carotid canal
Mandibular fossa
articulates with the mandibular condyle to form the Temporomanibular joint (TMJ)
Zygomatic process of Temporal Bone
bar like extension that projects anteriorly to meet the zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch
Carotid canal of temporal bone
opening in inferior part of temporal bone that allows passage of the internal carotid artery to the brain
Occipital Bone
forms the posterior part of the skull and most of it's base - meets parietal bones at lambdoid suture
Specific parts of occipital bone
  1. Foramen Magnum (passage of spine)
  2. Occipital condyles (articulate with Atlas)
Sphenoid bone
orbit of the eye - some of the floor of cranial cavity -
specific parts of sphenoid bone
  1. Sphenoid sinuses (paranasals)
  2. Sella Turcica / Hypophyseal fossa (small depression where pituitary gland is located)
  3. Optic Foramen (optic canal) - allows passage of the optic nerve from the eye to the brain
Ethmoid bone
roof and part of lateral walls of the nasal cavity - part of the nasal septum
specific parts of Ethmoid bone
  1. Ethmoid sinuses (paranasals)
  2. Cribiform Plates (roof of nasal cavity
  3. olfactory foramina - in CP, allow passage of olfactory nerve fibers
  4. perpendicular plate - forms superior portion of nasal septum
  5. Superior and Middle Conchae/Turbinates
maxilla (maxillary) bone
upper jaw and most of the hard palate
specific parts of maxillary bone
  1. Maxillary sinuses (paranasals)
  2. forms upper jaw and central part of face
  3. Alveolar Margin (upper teeth)
  4. Palatine process (anterior part and most 3/4 of hard palate
Palatine Bones
posterior part (1/4) of hard palate involved in "cleft palate"
Zygomatic Bones
"cheekbones" - join with Temporal Bones (zygomatic arch)
lacrimal bones
fingernail size - medial wall of each eye orbit - groove that provides for passage of tears to the nasal cavity
Nasal Bones
two small bones that form the bridge of the nose  (most of external nose is hyaline cartilege)
Vomer Bone
inferior portion of the Nasal Septum
Inferior Turbinates/Conchae (concha is sing.)
project from inferior aspect of lateral walls of the nasal cavity
The lower jaw bone
Specific Parts of Mandible
  1. Mandibular Condyle / Head of Mandible
  2. Alveolar Margin
  3. Body
  4. Rami (sg =Ramus)
  5. Mndblr Foramen
Roof of Nasal Cavity
formed by cribiform plates of Ethmoid Bone
Floor of nasal cavity
formed by palatine process of maxilla and the palatine bones (same components form the roof of mouth as "hard palate")
Lateral walls of nasal cavity
mostly formed by the Nasal Conchae/turbinates
  1. superior and middle conchae/turbinates of the ethmoid bone and the independent inferior conchae/turbinates
Anterior wall of nasal cavity
largely formed by pieces of cartilage that comprise the external nasal cartilage and small contribution by nasal bones in the bridge of the nose
Structure of nasal septum
  1. superior = perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
  2. inferior = vomer bone
  3. anterior = septal cartilage
paranasal sinuses
  1. air filled spaces that surround nasal cavity
  2. lined with mucus membranes
  3. located in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones
Orbits / eye sockets
  1. composed of parts of 7 different bones
  2. contain eyeballs, fat, lacrimal (tear) glands, small skeletal muscles that move the eyes
Hyoid Bone
  1. only bone that does not directly articulate with another bone
  2. attachment site for muscles involved in swallowing
  1. soft spots in infant skull
  2. allow growth of skull and compression during birth
  3. ossified within two years of birth
vertebral column / spinal column / spine
Total of 26 bones
7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacrum 1 coccyx
vertebrae are separated by pads called ___ ___ that help cushion the vertebrae by absorbing jolts
Intervertebral discs
Intervertebral discs consist of an outer fibrocartilage layer called ___ ____ and an inner gelatinous core called ____ _____.
  1. Outer layer = Anulus Fibrosus
  2. Inner Core = Nucleus Pulposus
  1. Scoliosis
  2. Kyphosis / Hunchback
  3. Lordosis / Swayback
  1. anormal lateral curvature of the thoracic vertebrae
  2. exaggerated poster curvature of thoracic vertebrae (older women)
  3. exaggerated anterior curvature of lumbar spine (obese men and pregnant women)
Structure of typical Vertebrae
  1. body/centrum
  2. vertebral arch (laminae are posterior portions)
  3. Vertebral Foramen (hole that spinal cord passes through)
Processses that extend from the vertebral arch (but are not part of the arch)
  1. Spinous process
  2. Transverse processes
Intervertebral Foramina
holes between adjacent vertebrae through wich spinal nerves pass
Important cervical vertebrae
  1. Atlas = 1st cervical vertebrae = articulates with occipital condyles (shake head yes)
  2. Axis =2nd cervical vertebrae = has dens / odontoid process that articulates with atlas to form the atlanto-axial joint (rotate head no)
  3. Vertebra prominen   = 7th cervical vertebrae relatively large spinous process can be seen/felt
Thoracic vertebrae
12 = larger than cervical smaller than lumbar = articulate with posterior end of ribs
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