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Category: Class III antiarrhythmic

Uses: LV dysfunction arryhthmias, converts atrial fib to sinus rhythm

AEs: Dogs: gi upset, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, bradycardia, hepatotoxicity. Horses: hind limb weakness, ↑ bilirubin

Notes: C/I in 2nd, 3rd degree heart block, bradyarrhythmia
Amiodarone
Cordarone®
Category: Calcium channel blocker

Uses: HTN, especially in cats. HF

AEs: Primarily GI, IV use may lead to metabolic acidosis, pain @ inject site. OD - N&V, thirst, hypervent

Notes: Correct acidosis sodium bicarbonate IV; C/I hepatic failure of uremia pts
Amlopidine 
Norvasc®
Category: Analgesic, antipyretic, platelet aggregation reducer, antiinflammatory

Uses: analgesia, fever reducer, tx DIC and PAD, cardiomypathy, glomerular disease

AEs: Dogs: GI irritation most common, vomiting or anorexia, hyperproteinemia. cats may develop acidosis. OD: depression, vomiting

Notes: low grade teratogen, may cause prolonged labor, cats are sensitive to this
Aspirin
Category: ACE inhibitor

Uses: HF, HTN, chronic renal failure

AEs: GI disturbances most likely, but HTN, renal dysfunction, hyperkalemia possible. OD - primary concern is hypotension

Notes: Mildly fetotoxic at high doses
Benazepril 
Lotensin®
Category: ACE inhibitor

Uses: vasodilation in tx of HF or HTN

AEs: Hypotension, renal failure, hyperkalemia, vomiting, diarrhea. Higher incidence of GI effects than other prils

Notes: Supplanted by enalapril and benazepril who have fewer AEs
Captopril   
Capoten®
Category: Platelet aggregation inhibitor

Uses: Preventing thromboembolic disease in cats

AEs: Appears well tolerated, vomiting or anorexia may develop; OD - bleeding and vomiting are acute signs, platelet transfusion to tx

Notes:
Clopidogrel Bisulfate
Plavix®
Category: Vitamin/nutritional

Uses: Vitamin B12 deficiency

AEs: Very safe, no OD information
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12)
Category: cardiac glycoside

Uses: CHF, SVTs, atrial fib

AEs: arrythmia, worsening HF, GI upset, anorexia, wt loss

Notes: Collies, australian shepherds, shelties, long haired whippets are at higher risk for toxicity
Digoxin   
Lanoxin®
Lanoxicaps ®
Category: Calcium channel blocker

Uses: SVTs, sick sinus syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

AEs: Bradycardia most prominent in dogs, cats vomiting is most common. Potentially GI effects, lethargy, hypotension, CNS effects.

Notes: OD- administer atropine; Use w/caution in geriatric, HF, hepatic or renal failure pts
Diltiazem
Cardizem®
Dilacor®
Category: beta adrenergic

Uses: short term tx for HF and shock

AEs: ectopic beats, ↑ HR, ↑ BP, chest pain, palpitations

Notes: Not for use in atrial fibrillation
Dobutamine
Dobutrex®
Category: adrenergic/ dopaminergic/ inotropic agent

Uses: tx hemodynamic imbalance during shock

AEs: N&V, ectopic beats, tachycardia, palpitations, hypotension, dyspnea, headache

Notes: typically only used in ICU setting
Dopamine
Intropin®
Category: ACE inhibitor

Uses: Vasodilator in tx of HF or HTN

AEs: GI distress, N&V most common, potentiall weakness, hypotension, renal dys, hyperkalemia; OD hypotension supportive care

Notes: Use w/caution in pregnancy, renal insufficiency
Enalapril    
Enacard®
Vasotec®
Category: alpha and beta adrenergic agonist

Uses: anaphylaxis, cardiac resuscitation

AEs: feelings of fear or anxiety, tremor, vomiting, HTN, arrythmia

Notes: Short acting and self limiting on OD
Epinephrine
Adrenalin®
Category:

Uses: Chelates calcium, prevents clots from forming. lead poisoning

AEs: vomiting, diarrhea, renal toxicity

Notes: Used in lavender-topped tubes to prevent blood clotting
Ethylenediamine Tetracetic Acid (EDTA)
Meta-Dose®
Category: Water soluble B vitamin

Uses: Folic acid deficiency

AEs: Quite non toxic, OD should require no tx

Notes:
Folic acid
Category: Anticoagulant

Uses: Tx of DIC and thromboembolic diseases

AEs: Bleeding bleeding bleeding; thrombocytopenia.

Notes: Intensive monitoring required on this drug
Heparin
Category: Vasodilator

Uses: tx CHF, mitral valve insufficiency, HTN

AEs: Hypotension, reflex tachycardia, sodium/ water retention or GI distress. OD - severe hypotension, tachycardia or arryhthmias

Notes: OD - digitalis if needed, treat shock; C/I w/ CAD, hypovolemia, hypotension
Hydralazine 
Apresoline®
Category: beta adrenergic agonist

Uses: tx bronchoconstriction, HF, arrythmias

AEs: tachycardia, anxiety, tremors, excitability, headache, weakness, vomiting

Notes: Don't use w/tachycardic or AV block; beta blockers may help OD
Isoproterenol
Isuprel®
Category: local anesthetic/ antiarrythmic

Uses: pain block at admin site; tx arrythmia

AEs: drowsiness, depression, ataxia, all mild and rare

Notes: Cats are very sensitive to this drug
Lidocaine
Xylocaine®
Category: ACE inhibitor

Uses: Vasodilator in tx of HF or HTN

AEs: GI distress, vomiting, diarrhea - biggest. OD - lethargy, tachycardia, vomiting, hypotension- primary concern

Notes: supportive OC tx, this drug is teratogenic
Lisinopril
Zestril®
Category: Oral antiarrhythmic

Uses: Vtach, PVCs

AEs: GI distress, vomiting, CNS effects, PVCs, and chest pains could occur

Notes: Use w/caution in pts w/CHF
Mexiletine
Mexitil®
Category: Venodilator

Uses: Used topically in vet med for CHF and HTN

AEs: rashes at application site, orthostatic hypotension, transient headaches. OD- severe hypotension possible, tx wash application site, epinephrine should not be given it will complicate effects

Notes: Wear gloves when applying, avoid human skin contact
Nitroglycerine  
Nitro-Bid®
Nitrol®
Category: Vasodilator

Uses: HF, CHF in critically ill pts

AEs: Hypotension, potentially nausea, retching, etc. OD- profound hypotension, tx reduce or stop drug and give fluids

Notes: BP must be monitored constantly on this drug
Nitroprusside
Nitropress®
Category: Antidote, fat soluble vitamin

Uses: tx anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity, bleeding disorders

AEs: Anaphylaxis; OD- generally nontoxic

Notes: May require 6-12 hours for effect
Phytonadione (Vitamin K1)
Category: Inodilator

Uses: CHF 2° to DCM, or CMVI in dogs

AEs: anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, dyspnea; may contribute to arrhythmias

Notes: Still in trials
Pimobendan  
Vetmedin®
Category: alpha 1 adrenergic blocker

Uses: HF, HTN

AEs: syncope, orthostatic hypotension, GI effects

Notes: can also be used for urinary obstruction tx
Prazosin
Minipress®
Category: Antiarrhythmic

Uses: VPCs, ventricular tachycardia

AEs: Dogs: blood level related, GI effects, weakness, hypotension, negative inotropism, widened QRS, fever and leukopenia possible

Notes: Efficacy questionable in dogs, C/I in myasthenia gravis, cardiac glycoside intoxication, lupus, hepatic or renal disease
Procainamide
Pronestyl®
Procamide®
Procan®
Category: beta adrenergic blocker

Uses: antiarrythmic effects

AEs: mostly seen in geriatric pts, bradycardia, lethargy, depression

Notes: withdraw gradually; atropine is reversal
Propranolol
Inderal®
Category: Antidote (heparin)

Uses: Heparin overdose

AEs: If injected too rapidly: acute hypotension, bradycardia, pulmonary hypertension, dyspnea

Notes: Monitor for heparin rebound
Protamine sulphate
Category: Antiarrhythmic

Uses: Various arryhthmias

AEs: Dogs: GI effects, weakness, hypotension, negative inotropism. Horses: Inappetance, depression, swelling of the nasal mucosa, ataxia, diarrhea. OD- sodium lactate tx

Notes: Do not allow animal to chew sustained release oral forms
Quinidine
Cinquin®
Cardioquin®
Quinidex®
Category: Beta adrenergic blocker

Uses: beta blocker, class III antiarrhythmic for vtach

AEs: Negative inotropis, dyspnea, bronchospasm, fatigue

Notes: $$, C/I w/ asthma, bradycardia, others
Sotalol
Betapace®
Category: Oral antiarrhythmic

Uses: Ventricular arrhythmias

AEs: CNS effects, N&V, CV effects, dogs develop ocular and renal toxicity over time

Notes: Not used very much in veterinary medicine
Tocainide
Tonocard®
Category: Calcium channel blocker

Uses: supraventricular tachycardia

AEs: hyptension, bradycardia, tachycardia, exacerbation of CHF, peripheral edema, pulmonary edema, nausea; OD- IV calcium salts

Notes: C/I in shock or severe CHF
Verapamil   
Isoptin® 
Calan®
Category: Anticoagulant

Uses: Long term tx of thrombotic conditions in dogs cats and horses

AEs: Dose-related hemorrage AEBj anemia, thrombocytopenia, weakness, hematoma, ecchymoses, epistaxis. OD- vitamin K1 and blood products

Notes: Teratogenic, those to undergo surgery should d/c drug
Warfarin   
Coumadin®
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