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1.Detect changes and feel sensations
2. Initiate response to change
3. Organize and store information
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Brain and spinal cord
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Name for the main cells of the nervous system
NERVE FIBER
Processes that carry impulses toward the cell body
DENDRITES
Contains the nucleus
CELL BODY
Process that carries impulses away from cell body
AXON
Carries impulses from receptors to the CNS
SENSORY NEURONS
Carries impulses from CNS to effectors
MOTOR NEURONS
Bundles of axons and/or dendrites of many neurons
NERVE
TYPE OF NERVE:
Made only of sensory neurons
SENSORY NERVE
TYPE OF NERVE:
Made only of motor neurons
MOTOR NERVE
TYPE OF NERVE:
Made of both sensory and motor neurons
MIXED NERVE
-Groups of neurons within the CNS
-Also called white matter due to the myelin sheath that surrounds them
-Either sensory or motor type (not mixed)
NERVE TRACTS
Support cells of CNS that carry out a variety of functions to aid and protect components of the nervous system
NEUROGLIA
Support cells of PNS that are responsible for the myelin that surrounds the axons of neurons in the PNS
SCHWANN'S CELLS
The space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
SYNAPSE
-Chemical released by the axon of a neuron
-Crosses the synapse to go to the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
NEUROTRANSMITTER
4 Steps of nerve impulse
POLARIZATION
DEPOLARIZATION
PROPAGATION
REPOLARIZATION
Where neuron's cell membrane has a (+) charge on the outside and a (-) charge on the inside surface

1st step of the nerve impulse
POLARIZATION
2nd step in the nerve impulse

Neurotransmitter stimulates the cell membrane of the neuron

(+) charge on the inside and (-) on the outside
DEPOLARIZATION
3rd step of the nerve impulse

PROPAGATION
4th step of the nerve impulse

(+) on outside and (-) on inside of neuron's cell membrane
REPOLARIZATION
8 spinal nerves to head, neck, shoulder, arm and diaphragm
CERVICAL
12 pairs to trunk
THORACIC
5 pairs to hip, pelvic cavity, and leg
5 LUMBAR AND 5 SACRAL
Very small pair
COCCYGEAL
The lumbar and sacral nerves that extend below the spinal cord
CAUDA EQUINA
Pathway of a nerve impulses during a reflex
REFLEX ARC-RECEPTORS TO SENSORY NEURONS TO CNS TO MOTOR NEURONS TO EFFECTORS THAT RESPOND (RSME)
Parts of the brain (8 parts)
VENTRICLES, MEDULLA, PONS, MIDBRAIN, CEREBELLUM, HYPOTHALAMUS, THALAMUS, CEREBRUM
-Four cavities

-Contains a choroid plexus that forms CSF
VENTRICLES
-Regulates the vital functions of heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure
-Regulates reflexes of coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
MEDULLA
-Between the medulla and midbrain

-Contains the respiratory centers that work with those in the medulla
PONS
-Superior part of the brain stem

-Center for visual reflexes, audiotory reflexes and equilibrium reflexes
MIDBRAIN
-Regulates coordination of voluntary movement, muscle tone, stopping movements and equilibrium
-Contributes to sensations involving textrure and weight
CEREBELLUM
-Produces hormones
-Regulates body temperature and food intake
-Integrates functioning of the autonomic nervous system
-Acts as a biological clock
HYPOTHALAMUS
-Groups sensory impulses as to body parts before relaying them to the cerebrum
-Awareness of pain, but cannot localize
-Memory
THALAMUS
-Two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum, which permits communication between the hemispheres
Parts: Frontal Lobes, Parietal Lobes, Temporal Lobes, Occipital Lobes, Basal Ganglia
CEREBRUM
-Initiate voluntary movement
FRONTAL LOBES
-General sensory area feels and interprets the cutaneous senses and counscious muscle sense
-Some sense of taste
-Speech areas for thought before speech
PARIETAL LOBES
-Auditory areas for hearing
-Olfactory areas for sense of smell and interpretation
TEMPORAL LOBES
-Vision
OCCIPITAL LOBES
Outer layer of meninges
DURA MATER (THINK DURABLE)
Middle layer of meninges
ARACHNOID MATER (THINK SPIDER WEBS)
Inner layer of meninges
PIA MATER
Part of the PNS: Consists of motor neurons to visceral effectors (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands)
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Two divisions of ANS
SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC
Dominates during stress situations
SYMPATHETIC
Dominates in relaxed situations to permit normal functioning
PARASYMPATHETIC
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