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Define Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Divided into catabolic and anabolic reactions.
Define Catabolic Reaction
The break down of large chemicals, which releases energy.
Define Anabolic Reaction
The build up of large chemicals, which requires energy.
Define Digestion
The process of converting food into a usable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes in the digestive tract and enter the body.
Define Transport
The circulation of essential compounds required to nourish the tissues and the removal of waste products from the tissues.
Define Assimilation
The building up of new tissues from digested food material.
Define Respiration
The consumption of oxygen by the body. Cells use oxygen to convert glucose to ATP, a ready source of energy for cellular activities
Define Synthesis
The create of complex molecules from simple ones (anabolism)
Define Homeostasis
Regulation of the body's internal environment in a changing external environment. The regulation is run by hormones and the nervous system.
Define Protoplasm
The living content enclosed within a cell by the cellular membrane.
What are Carbohydrates?
C, H & OUsed for the storage of energyGlucose, glycogen, starch
What are Lipids?
C, H & OUsed for storage of energyComposed by dehydration synthesis 3x between one glycerol and three fatty acids.
What is adipose tissue?
Fatty tissue found in loose connective tissue.
What are carotenes?
A subgroup of the lipid derivative carotenoid. This carotenoid subgroup is composed only of C & H, no O.
What are xanthophylls?
A subgroup of the lipid carotenoid. This carotenoid subgroup is composed of C, H & O.
What is glycerol?
The back bone of lipids. To synthesis a lipid, it goes through dehydration synthesis for each of the three fatty acid it reacts with.
What is a phospholipid?
Lipid derivativeA lipid at which one fatty acid is substituted with a phosphate group.
What is a wax?
Lipid derivativeA fatty acid containing an ester and sometimes a monohydroxylic alcohol
What is a steroid?
Lipid derivativeComposed of three fused cyclohaxane rings and one cyclopentane ring. Cholesterol, sex hormones and corticosteroids.
What is a corticosteroid?
physiological hormone
What is a carotenoid?
Lipid derivativeComposed of a six-membered ring at each end and conjoined by a chain of conjugated double bonds. These are the pigments found in plants and animals. Two subgroups
What is a porphyrin?
Lipid derivativeComposed of four pyrrole rings that are connected by carbon bridges. Completely aromatic. Complexed with metals. Ex
What is an amino acid?
A unit of a protein that is composed of a carboxylic acid group attached for an amine group by a one bridge carbon. The units that make up a protein.
What is a protein?
Contain C, H, O, N and potentially P and/or S. Molecules in the body that serve MANY purposes. Composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds through dehydration reactions. Proteins are complex and have primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures that define them.
What is a peptide bond?
The covalent bonds that are formed between amino acids to make polypeptides or proteins. Formed by dehydration synthesis when the OH group from one amino acid is lost and an H from the amine group of another amino acid is lost. The bond made here is a peptide bond.
What is the primary structure of a protein?
Sequence of amino acids.
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
Based on hydrogen bonding between adjacent amino acids and results in a β-pleated sheet or α helix
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
The 3D shape of the protein, based on the interaction of the R groups.
What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
The interaction or joining of two or more independent polypeptide chains.
What is a simple protein?
One which is composed entirely of amino acids.
What is an albumin?
Protein that is primarily globular in nature. They are functional and act as carriers or enzymes.
What are globulins?
Proteins that are primarily globular in nature and are functional in that they act as carriers or enzymes.
What are scleroproteins?
Proteins that are fibrous in nature and act as a structural protein. ex
What is a conjugated protein?
These contain a simple protein plus one or more non-protein fractions.
What is a lipoprotein?
A protein bound to a lipid.
What is a mucoprotein?
A protein bound to a carbohydrate.
What is a chromoprotein?
Protein bound to a pigmented molecule.
What is a metalloprotein?
Proteins complexed around a metal ion.Important as enzymes, transport proteins, or signal transduction proteins.
What is a nucleoprotein?
A protein bound to a nucleic acid and acts as a histone or protamine. Found in DNA and RNA
What are five major functions of proteins?
Hormones, enzymes, structural, transport, antibodies.
What are enzymes?
They are proteins that affect the rate of a chemical reaction by decreasing its activation energy. They are catalysts for a reaction. They may catalyze only one reaction or one class of reactions. They are often conjugated proteins in which the non-protein component is called the coenzyme.
What are the two theories of how enzymes interact with their substrate?
1. Lock & Key
What are the environment factors affecting enzymatic reactions?
pH
Explain competitive inhibition vs noncompetitive inhibition for enzymes.
Competitive
What is hydrolysis?
A protein enzyme which digests down large molecules into smaller components.
What is lactase?
A protein enzyme which hydrolyzes lactose into monosaccharide glucose and galactose.
What is protease?
A protein enzyme which degrades proteins into amino acids.
What is lipase?
A protein enzyme which breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
What is the ribosome?
The organelle of a cell which synthesizes proteins. Ribosomes are free in the cytoplasm as well as embedded in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
What are prokaryotes?
Cells that lack a nucleus. Their DNA is in a circular form and located in an area of the cell called the nucleoid. No membrane bound organelles. Respiration occurs directly at the cellular membrane.
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