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Tx of bradycardia
If accompanied by SOB, hypotension, or abnormal beats, atropine is used; a pacemaker may also be indicated
Tx of sinus tachycardia
stop underlying cause, administration of digitalis or beta blockers
Tx of premature atrial contraction
if more than 6 PACs per minute, lidocaine may be used
Tx of A-fib
Cardioversion, propanolol,digitalis
Tx of A-flutter
Cardioversion, carotid artery massage, procainamide,
Tx of V-tach
Tx of V-fib
Defibrillation, CPR
If arrythmia is not reversed, death soon results because there is essentially no blood being pumped out of the heart
What is mean arterial pressure and what is the normal?
It represents the average pressure during a cardiac cyle.
80-100 mmHg
What is CVP and what does it represent?
What is normal range?
Central venous pressure
It is a measurement of of right atrial pressure which reflects sysytemic venous return and right ventricular preload.
Normal value is less than 6 mmHg or less than 8 cm H2O
Conditions that increase CVP?
Hypervolemia(volume overlaod)
Pulmonary hypertension
Rt. ventricular failure
Pulm. embolism
Left heart failure
severe flail chest or pneumothorax
What is normal Cardiac Output (CO)?
5 L/min
What is PAP and why is it important to monitor it?
Pulmonary artery pressure
Important in the care of patients with sepsis, ARDS, pulm.edema, and MI.Especially important to monitor PAP and PvO2 in pt.s using at least 10 of PEEP because these high levels may compromise cardiac status and O2 delivery to tissue
How is PvO2 obtained and what is the norm?
mixed venous blood sampling to measure PvO2 is acheived by obtaining blood from the pulmonary artery.
Normal PvO2= 35-45mmHg
What does PvO2 reflect?
Tissue oxygenation
What is PCWP a measurement of?
a measurement of pressure in the left side of the heart
What s normal PCWP?
4-12 mmHg
A PCWP value of more than 18mmHg usually indicates impending?
Pulmonary edema
Conditions that increase PCWP?
-Left ventricular failure
-Mitral and aortic valve stenosis
-sysytemic hypertension
Conditions that decrease PCWP?
What is the simplified method of calculating shunt?
A-a gradient/20 + 4%
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