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What is the basic functional unit of the nervous system
Neuron
What is the major function of the neuron
To transmit messages from one part of the body to another
Name the four types of neuroglia in the CNS

  • Astrocytes

  • Oligodendrocytes

  • Microglia

  • Ependymal cells

What does CNS stand for and what does it include

  • Central Nervous System

  • Brain and spinal cord

What does PNS stand for
Periferal Nervous System
Name a cell type and function:

Astrocytes

  • CNS neuroglia

  • Controls the chemical environment and helps create the blood-brain barrior

Name the Neuroglia cell of the CNS that controls the chemical environment
Astrocyte
Name the neuroglia cell of the CNS that helps create the blood-brain barrior
Astrocyte
Name a cell type and function:

Oligodendrocyte

  • CNS Neuroglia

  • Forms myelin sheathes around CNS nerve fibers

  • Uses processes and can coat more than one fiber.

What is the most abundant CNS neuroglia cell type
astrocytes
Name the neuroglia cell of the CNS that has processes which form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers
Oligodendrocytes
Name a cell type and function:

Microglia

  • CNS neuroglia cell

  • Defensive cells

  • Phagocytes, clean-up

Name the neuroglia cell of the CNS that acts as a phagocyte/clean-up cell
Microglia
Name the defensive glial cell of the CNS
Microglia
Name a cell type and function:

Ependymal Cells

  • CNS neuroglia cell

  • lines the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cavities

  • Produces CSF

  • Circulates the CSF

  • Ciliated

What is the function of the Neuroglia
Supporting cells of the nervous system
Name the CNS glia cell that produces and circulates the CSF
ependymal cells
Name the two most important glia cells of the PNS

  • Satellite cells

  • Schwann cells

Name a cell type and function:

Schwann cells

  • PNS neuroglia cell

  • Forms mylin sheath around nerve fibers of the PNS

What are two major differences between Schwann cells and oligodendrocyte cells

  • Oligodendrocyte cells are in CNS, Schwann cells are in PNS

  • Oligodendrocytes can sheath more than one fiber, Schwann each sheath only one part of one fiber.

Name a cell type and function:

Satallite cell

  • PNS glia cell

  • Surrounds somas of neurons in the ganglia

  • Provides electrical insulation

  • Regulates chemical environment of neuron.

What type of cell surrounds the soma of a PNS neuron in the ganglia
PNS glia Satallite cell
What type of cell regulates the chemical environment of the neurons in the PNS ganglia
PNS satallite glia cell
What type of cell provides insulation for the neurasomas in the PNS ganglia
PNS satallite glia cells.
Neuron

  • Basic functional unit of  nervous tissue

  • cell specialized transmit messages (nerve impulses) from one part of the body to another

Name the basic parts of a neuron

  • Body (soma) (neurosoma)

  • Dendrites

  • Axons

Describe the body of a nerve (neurosoma)

  • large round nucleus with neuroplasm (cytoplasm of a neuron)

  • Processes branch from the body (dendrites and neurons)

Name the two places neurasomas are found grouped together

  • CNS Nuclei

  • PNS ganglia

Name two types of neurosoma processes

  • dendrites

  • axons

Axons   AKA
Nerve fibers
Nerve fibers  AKA
axons
Name the two structures that neuron fibers (axons) create

  • CNS - Tracts of white matter

  • PNS - periferal nerves

Where are tracts found and what are they made up of
Tracts are nerve fibers which run through the CNS
What are peripheral nerves and what are they made up of
Periferal nerves are nerve fibers that run through the PNS
What are nerve fibers running through the grey matter of the CNS called
tracts
What are nerve fibers running through the PNS called
peripheral nerves
What are neuraofibrils and where are they found
Neurofibrils are the skeletal structure of the neuroplasm of a neurosoma.  They hold the dark staining nissl bodies.
What are the two main functions of the neurofibrils

  • Support

  • Intracellular transport

What is the name for the support structures within the neuroplasm of a neurosoma.
neurofibrils
What is found between the neurofibrils of a neurosoma.
Nissl bodies.
What is a nissl body, what does it do and where is it found

  • elaborate type of rough endoplasmic reticulum

  • cell metabolism

  • between the neurofibrils of the neurosoma

What are dendrites

  • processes of the neuron

  • receptive region of the cell

What does a dendrite have that interacts with an axon
receptors for neurochemicals
What does an axon do that interacts with a dendrite
produces neurochemicals
What is an axon

  • Process of the neuron

  • Nerve fiber

  • generates and conducts nerve impulses

Each cell has only one axon but that axon may have ________.
collaterals

Axon collateral branches
What is the slightly enlarged cell body structure at the base of the axon
Axon hillock
What is the portion where the axon hillock narrows to axon diameter called
Initial segment
What is the term for the multiple small structures at the end of the axon
Axon terminals
Axon collateral branches
branches off of the main axon of a neuron
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