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2 parts of photosynthesis
Light reactions and dark reactions.
Absorption Spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light; also a graph of such a range.
Action Spectrum
A graph that profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process.
Autotroph
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Uses energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Calvin Cycle
"The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions)
Calvin Cycle phase 1
Carbon fixation. Incorporates each CO2 by attaching it to a 5 carbon sugar called ribulose biphospate (RuBP) by RuBP carboxylase or rubisco. Product is a 6 carbon intermediate that splits to 2 molecules of 3 phosphoglycerate.
Calvin Cycle phase 2
"Reduction. Each 3 phosphoglycerate gets a phosphate from ATP becoming 1
Carbon fixation
First step of the Calvin Cycle where CO2 is incorporated from air into organic molecules already in the chloroplast.
Carotenoids
Hydrocarbon accessory pigments of yellow and orange that also help photoprotect chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
"The green pigment located within chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes. Chlorophyll a participates directly in the light reactions
Chlorophyll a
Absorbs red and blue light. Only pigment to directly convert light energy. Other pigments transfer absorbed light energy to Chlorophyll a.
Chlorophyll b
Yellow green light absorbing pigment. An accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
Cyclic electron flow description and why is it used
"Uses photosystem 1
Electromagnetic Spectrum
The entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
Envelope of of 2 membranes encloses the
Stroma
ferredoxin
Product of Calvin cycle
Formula for photosynthesis
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + light =C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
Heterotroph
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
Light reactions
"The first of two major stages in photosynthesis (preceding the Calvin cycle). These reactions
Mesophyll
"The ground tissue of a leaf
NADP? (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate)
"An electron acceptor that
Noncyclic electron flow (concept)
Produces NADPH and releases oxygen. This uses both photosystem 1 and 2. Produce ATP and NADPH in equal quantities.
Noncyclic electron flow (steps)
"1) in photosystem 2 P680 loses electrons and becomes a strong electron acceptor.2) an enzyme extracts elevtrons from H2O donates to P680
Photon
"A quantum
Photophosphorylation
Production of ATP powered by by light during light reactions in photosynthesis.
Photophosphorylation
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis
"The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants
Photosystem
"Chlorophyll with proteins and other smaller organic molecules. A photosystem has a light gathering antenna complex consisting of a cluster of a few hundred chlorophyll a
Photosystem 1
Has P700 chlorophyll at reaction center
Photosystem 2
Has P680 chlorophyll
Reaction center
Where first light driven process of photosynthesis occurs. A chlorophyll a and a primary electron acceptor are next to each other. Chlorophyll a loses an electron to the acceptor.
Spectrophotometer
An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
"Stoma (plural
Stomata)"
Thylakoid
"A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast. Exist in an interconnected system in the chloroplast and contain the molecular ""machinery"" used to convert light energy to chemical energy."
To make this the cycle has to turn 3 times.
Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P)
Visible Light
"That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected as various colors by the human eye
Wavelength
"The distance between crests of waves
What colors of light does chlorophyll absorb?
Red and blue
Where are the sites of the 2 photosynthesis steps
Thylakoids to the light reactions and the Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma.
Where does the O2 in carbs produced by plants come from?
Comes from H2O not the CO2
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