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CHROMATIN
Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
CHROMOSOME
Threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
CYTOPLASM
Jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
DIAPHRAGM
Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
METABOLISM
Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
ORGANELLE
Cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
PATHOLOGY
Study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences
PERISTALSIS
Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward
ADHESION
Abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
ANALYTE
Substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
CONTRAST MEDIUM
Substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
DEHISCENCE
Bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound
FEBRILE
Feverish; pertaining to a fever
HOMEOSTASIS
Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
INFLAMMATION
Body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and, sometimes, loss of function
MORBID
Diseased; pertaining to disease
NUCLEAR MEDICINE
Branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
RADIOLOGY
Medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, unltrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
[RADIOLOGY] INTERVENTIONAL
Radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders
[RADIOLOGY] THERAPEUTIC
Use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; also called radiation oncology
RADIONUCLIDES
Substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers
RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL
Radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned
SCAN
Term used to describe a computerized image by modalty (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid and bone)
SEPSIS
Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
SUPPURATIVE
Producing or associated with generation of pus
ENDOSCOPY
Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
LAPAROSCOPY
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
THORACOSCOPY
Examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC)
Common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; measures hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells); estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages
URINALYSIS (UA)
Common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography
DOPPLER
Ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
FLUOROSCOPY
Radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
Noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
NUCLEAR SCAN
Diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET)
Scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
RADIOGRAPHY
Imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray
SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT)
Radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
TOMOGRAPHY
Radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
ULTRASONOGRAPHY (US)
Imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound,sonography, echo, and echography
BIOPSY
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
[BIOPSY] FROZEN SECTION
Ulta-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
[BIOPSY] NEEDLE
Removal of small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe
[BIOPSY] PUNCH
Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)
[BIOPSY] SHAVE
Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
ABLATION
Removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)
ANASTOMOSIS
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
CAUTERIZE
Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
CURETTAGE
Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet)
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