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Secretes products into ducts
Exocrine glands
Secretes products into body fluids to affect target cells
Endocrine glands
Endocrine gland names
Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas and others
Steroids, amines, or proteins
Type of hormones
Where is the pituitary gland?
Hangs in the hypothalamus by a stalk-like structure called infundibulum
Six hormones that are secreted from the anterior pituitary gland
GH (Growth Hormone)
TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
Prolactin
FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
LH (Luteinizing hormone)
  • Increases rate of mitosis
  • Increases protein synthesis
  • Increases use of fats for energy
Growth hormone (GH)
Increases secretions of thyroxine (T4) and T3 by thyroid gland
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Increases secretions of cortisol by the adrenal cortex (outer part of the adrenal gland)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates milk production by the mammory gland
Prolactin
  • Initiates growth of ova (eggs) in ovarian follicles
  • Increases secretions of estrogen by follicle cells (in ovaries)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Initiates sperm production in the testes
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Causes ovulation
  • Causes the ruptured ovarian follicle to become the corpus luteum
  • Increases secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Increases secretions of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary hormone
Posterior pituitary hormones (2 of them)
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  • Oxytocin
The effect is to conserve water in the body
  • Increase water reabsorption in kidney tubules
  • Decreases sweating
  • Causes vasoconstriction
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  • Promotes contraction of uterus during labor
  • Promotes release of milk from mammary glands
Oxytocin
Located on front and sides of the trachea below the larnyx
Thyroid gland
  • Increase energy production from all food types
  • Increase rate of protein synthesis
T3 & T4
Decreases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to blood (PTH has opposite effect)
Calcitonin
  • Increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood (opposite of calcitonin)
  • Increases absorption of calcium & phosphate by the small intestine
  • Increases the reabsorption of calcium & excretion of phosphate by the kidneys; activates vitamin D
Parathyroid hormone
The gland sits atop the kidneys enclosed in a layer of fat
Adrenal gland
The adrenal medulla secretes these two hormones into the blood stream
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Causes vasoconstriction of skin, viscera & skeletal muscles
Norepinephrine
  • Decreases peristalsis
  • Vasodilation in skeletal muscle
  • Increases rate & force of contraction
  • Dilates bronchioles
  • Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose
  • Increases use of fats for energy
  • Increases cell respiration
Epinephrine
  • Increases reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys to the blood
  • Increases excretion of potassium ions by the kidneys in urine
Aldosterone
  • Increases use of fats & excess amino acids for energy
  • Decreases use of glucose for energy (except for the brain)
  • Increases conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver
  • Anti-inflammatory effect
Cortisol
  • Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
  • Increases the use of excess amino acids and fats for energy
Glucagon
  • Increases glucose transport into cells
  • Increases the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen
  • Increases amino acid and fatty acid transport into cells
Insulin
  • Decreases secretion of insulin and glucagon
  • Slows absorption of nutrients
Somatostatin
Involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms of the body
Melatonin
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