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With atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, and junctional rhythms, a portion of left ventricular filling is lost. What percent of left-ventricular end-diastolic volume is normally contributed by atrial contraction ("kick" or "priming")?
Passive diastolic filling usually accounts for 75% of left-ventricular filling, with atrial contraction causing an additional 25% filling of ventricles.  Stoelting states "during the latter portion of diastole, the atria contract to deliver about 30% of the blood that normally enters the ventricles during each cardiac cycle."
What is the normal range for stroke volume in mL in a 70kg male?
The normal range for stroke volume is 60-90 mL.
What is the formula for stroke index?
Stroke Index is the Stroke Volume (SV) divided by body surface area (BSA) in meters squared.
What is the normal range for stroke volume index?
The normal range for stroke volume index is 40-60 mL/beat/m2
What is definition of ejection fraction?
Ejection Fraction (EF) is the ratio of stroke volume (end-diastolic volume minus end-systolic volume) to end-diastolic volume.  EF = SV/EDV OR EF = (EDV - ESV)/EDV
What is the normal range of Ejection Fraction?
The normal range is 0.6-0.8, or 60-80%
What are the two determinants of cardiac output?
Stroke volume and Heart Rate are the two determinates of Cardiac Output.  Cardiac Output = SV x HR
If the stroke volume is 70 mL and the heart rate is 70 bpm, what is the cardiac output?
70 bpm x 70 mL = 4,900 mL/min, or 4.9 L/min
What is the definition of cardiac index?
Cardiac Index is the Cardiac Output divided by the body surface area (BSA) in meters squared.  CI = CO/BSA
What is the normal range for cardiac index?
Normal cardiac index ranges from 2.5-4.0 L/min/m2
Starling's Law of the heart relates ventricular filling during diastole to what?
Starling's Law of the heart relates ventricular filling during diastole to the amount of the blood ejected during systole.  The greater the ventricular filling during diastole (the greater the preload), the greater the quantity of blood pumped into the aorta during systole.
Describe the process that causes ventricular myocyte relaxation (lusitropy).
Ventricular myocyte contraction requires increased intracellular calcium. Thus, for the ventricular myocyte to relax, intracellular calcium must be reduced back to resting levels.  Calcium is sequestered back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum through energy-dependent processes.
Name the organs in the vessel rich group and tell what percentage of cardiac output goes to each of these organs.
  • Brain: 15%
  • Liver: 25%
  • Kidneys: 25%
  • Heart: 4-5% (225 ml/min)
  • Lungs: 100%
  • Endocrine Tissues
  • Digestive Tract
What percent of the right heart's cardiac output traverses the pulmonary circulation?
100%
What percent of the right heart's cardiac output traverses the bronchial circulation?
0%
What percent of the left heart's cardiac output traverses the bronchial circulation?
1-2%
Vessels delivering blood to the bronchial circulation arise from what arteries?
The bronchial circulation arises from the thoracic aorta and intercostal arteries.
In words, describe where isovolumetric relaxation occurs on the left-ventricular pressure-volume loop.
Isovolumetric relaxation occurs from closure of the aortic valve to opening of the mitral valve on the left-ventricular pressure-volume loop.
In words, describe where isovolumetric contraction occurs on the left-ventricular pressure-volume loop.
Isovolumetric contraction occurs from closure of the mitral valve to opening of the aortic valve on the left-ventricular pressure-volume loop.
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