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where in the cranial cavity does the brainstem lie?
posterior fossa
what is the rostral limit of the brainstem?
midbrain-diencephalic junction (where midbrain meets thalamus and hypothalamus at level of the tentorium cerebelli
what is the caudal limit of the brainstem?
cervicomedullary junction at the level of the foramen magnum and pyramidal decussation
structures on the dorsal surface of the midbrain?
superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
structures on the ventral surface of the midbrain?
cerebral peduncles (with the interpeduncular fossa in between)
what lies on the dorsal surface of the pons?
4th ventricle and cerebellum (connected via superior; middle; and inferior cerebellar peduncles)
structures on the ventral surface of the rostral medulla?
pyramids and olives (laterally)
structures on the ventral surface of the caudal medulla?
pyramids and pyramidal decussation
structures on the dorsal surface of the caudal medulla?
posterior columns and nucleus gracilis and cunneatus
structures on the dorsal surface of the rostral medulla?
4th ventricle
the floor of the 4th ventricle spans what structures?
dorsal surfaces of the pons and rostral medulla
what structures lie on the floor of the 4th ventricle?
(remember that floor of 4th ventricle is the dorsal surface of pons and rostral medulla); facial colliculus; hypoglossal trigone; vagal trigone
what forms the facial colliculus?
abducens nuclei and facial nerve
what forms the hypoglossal trigone?
hypoglossal nucleus
what forms the vagal trigone?
dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve
what lies rostral to the 4th ventricle?
cerebral aqueduct (which runs thru the midbrain)
what does the 4th ventricle drain into?
foramina of luschka (located laterally) and foramina of magendie (located on midline) which allows CSF to drain into subarachnoid space
what is the caudal end of the 4th ventricle?
obex; marks the entry to the spinal cord central canal (which is closed in adults)
which 2 cranial nerves do not arise from the brainstem?
1 and 2
which cranial nerve exits the brainstem on the dorsal surface?
4 (dorsal surface of midbrain)
which cranial nerves innervate somatic motor structures?
3; 4; 6; 12; note all of these arise ventrally near the midline (except cn 4)
where does CN3 (oculomotor n) exit the brainstem?
ventrally from the interpeduncular fossa of the midbrain (in the midline)
where does CN4 (trochear n) exit the brainstem?
dorsally from the midbrain; fibers cross as the nerve emerges
where does CN5 (trigeminal n) exit the brainstem?
from the ventrolateral pons (midway down the pons)
where does CN6 (abducens n) exit the brainstem?
ventrally at the pontomedullary junction
where does CN7 (Facial n) exit the brainstem?
ventrolaterally from the pontomedullary junction
where does CN8 (vestibulochchlear n) exit the brainstem?
ventrolaterally from the pontomedullary junction
where does CN9 (glossopharyngeal n) exit the brainstem?
ventrolaterally from the rostral medulla
where does CN10 (vagus n) exit the brainstem?
ventrolaterally from the rostral medulla
the region where CN 7 8 and 9 exit the brainstem is also called?
cerebellopontine angle
where does CN11 (spinal accessory n) exit the brainstem?
laterally from multiple rootlets along the upper cervical spinal cord
where does CN12 (hypoglossal n) exit the brainstem?
ventrally from the medulla; between the pyramids and the inferior olivary nuclei
which cranial nerves exit from the pontomedullary junction?
6; 7; 8
which cranial nerves exit the medulla posterior to the olives?
9; 10; 11
which cranial nerves exit the medulla between the pyramids and the olives?
cn 12
skull exit point for CN 1
cribriform plate
skull exit point for CN 2
optic canal
skull exit point for CN 3
superior orbital fissure
skull exit point for CN 4
superior orbital fissure
skull exit point for CN V1
superior orbital fissure
skull exit point for CN V2
foramen rotundum
skull exit point for CN V3
foramen ovale
skull exit point for CN 6
superior orbital fissure
skull exit point for CN 7
internal auditory meatus (and stylomastoid foramen)
skull exit point for CN 8
internal auditory meatus
skull exit point for CN 9
jugular foramen
skull exit point for CN 10
jugular foramen
skull exit point for CN 11
jugular foramen (enters skull via foramen magnum)
skull exit point for CN 12
hypoglossal canal
what structures exit the skull via the optic canal?
CN 2; ophthalmic artery
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