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(Intrinsic-Thenar)

Opponens Pollicis
O: Flexor Retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

I: Lateral side of 1st metacarpal

INNER: Recurrent branch of Median N. (C8,T1)

A: To oppose thumb, it draws 1st metacarpal medially towards palm and rotates it medially
(Intrinsic-Thenar)

Flexor Pollicis Brevis
O: Superficial & Deep
Flexor retinaculum & tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

I: Superficial & Deep
Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

INNER: Superficial
Recurrent branch of
Median N. (C8,T1)
Deep
Deep branch of
Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Superficial
Flexes thumb
Deep
Adducts thumb
toward lateral border
of palm
(Intrinsic-Thenar)

Abductor Pollicis Brevis
O: Flexor retinaculum & tubercles of scaphoid & trapezium

I: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

INNER: Recurrent branch of Median N. (C8,T1)

A: Abducts thumb; helps oppose it
(Intrinsic-Hypothenar)

Opponens Digiti Minimi
O:Hook of hamate, and flexor retinaculum

I: Medial border of 5th metacarpal

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Draws 5th metacarpal anterior and rotates it, bringing 5th digit into opposition with thumb
(Intrinsic-Hypothenar)

Flexor Digiti Minimi
O: Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

I: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit
(Intrinsic- Hypothenar)

Abductor Digiti Minimi
O: Pisiform

I: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Abducts 5th digit; assists in flexion of its proximal phalanx
(Intrinsic- Immediate)

Adductor Pollicis
O: Oblique
Bases of 2nd & 3rd
metacarpals, capitate,
& adjacent carpals
Transverse
Anterior surface of
shaft of 3rd  
metacarpal
I: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Adducts thumb toward lateral border of palm
(Intrinsic-Intermediate)

1st & 2nd Lumbricals
O: Lateral two tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (as unipennate muscles)

I: Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd -5th digits

INNER:Median N. (C8,T1)

A: Flexes metacarpophalangeal joints; extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd-5th digits
(Intrinsic-Intermediat)

3rd & 4th Lumbricals
O: Medial 3 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (as bipennate muscles)

I: Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd-5th digits

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Flex metacarpophalangeal joints; extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd-5th digits

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Flexes metacarpophalangeal joints; extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd-5th digits
(Intrinsic-Intermediate)

Dorsal Interossel
1st-4th
O: Adjacent sides of two metacarpals (as bipennate muscles)

I: Bases of proximal phalanges; extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Abducts 2nd-4th digits from axial line; act with lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
(Intrinsic-Intermediate)

Palmer Interossel
1st-3rd

O: Palmer surfaces of 2nd, 4th, 5th metacarpals (as unipennate muscles)

I: Bases of proximal phalanges; extensor expansions of 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits

INNER: Deep branch of Ulnar N. (C8,T1)

A: Adduct 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits toward axial line; assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints; extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits
(Anterior-Superficial Layer)

Pronator Teres
O: Humeral Head
Medial epicondyle of
humerus
Ulnar Head
Coranoid process

I: Middle convexity of lateral surface of radius

INNER: Median N. (C6,C7)

A: Pronates and flexes forearm (at elbow)
(Anterior-Superficial Layer)

Flexor Carpi Radialis
O:Medial epicondyle of humerus

I: Base of 2nd metacarpal

INNER: Median N. (C6,C7)

A: Flexes arm and abducts hand (at wrist)
(Anterior-Superficial Layer)

Palmaris Longus
O: Medial epicondyle of humerus

I: Distal half of flexor retinaculum and apex of palner aponeurosis

INNER: Median N. (C6,C7)

A: Flexes hand (at wrist) and tenses palmer aponeurosis
(Anterior-Superficial Layer)

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
O: Humeral Head
Medial Epicondyle of
humerus
Ulnar Head
Olcranon and
posterior border (via
aponeurosis)

I: Hook of hamate, pisiform , and 5th metacarpal

INNER: Ulnar N. (C7,C8)

A: Flexes and adducts hand (at wrist)
(Anterior-Intermediate Layer)

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
O: Humeroulnar Head
Medial epicondyle of
humerus
Radial Head
Superior half of
anterior border

I: Shafts of middle phalanges of medial four digits

INNER: Median N. (C7,C8, T1)

A: Flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalangeal joints of middle four digits; acting strongly; it also flexes proximal phalanges at metacarpophalangeal joints
(Anterior-Deep Layer)

Flexor Pollicis Longus
O: Anterior surface of radius and interossous membrane

I: Base of distal phalanx of thumb

INNER: Anterior interosseous nerve, from median nerve (C8,T1)

A: Flexes phalanges of 1st digit (thumb)
(Anterior-Deep Layer)

Pronator Quadratus
O: Distal quarter of anterior surface of Ulna

I: Distal quarter of anterior surface of Radius

INNER: Anterior Interosseous N., from Median N. (C8,T1)

A: Pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
(Anterior-Deep Layer)

Flexor Digitorum Profundus
O: Middle & Lateral
Proximal 3 quarters of
medial and anterior sufaces of ulna and interosseous membrane

I: Medial
Bases of distal phalanges 4th & 5th digits
Lateral
Bases of distal phalanges 2nd & 3rd digits

INNER: Medial
Ulnar N. (C8,T1)
Lateral
Anterior Interosseus N., from Median N. (C8,T1)

A: Medial
Flexes distal phalanges 4 and 5 at distal interphalangeal joints; flexes hand at wrist
Lateral
Flexes distal phalanges 2 and 3 at distal interphalangeal joints; flexes hand at wrist




Brachialis
O: Distal half of anterior surface of humerous

I: Coranoid process and tuberosity of ulna

INNER: Musculocutaneous N. (C5,C6), Radial N. (C5,C7)

A: Flexes forearm in all positions
(Posterior-Superfial Layer)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
O: Lateral supraepicondylar ridge of humerus

I: Dorsal aspect of base of 2nd metacarpal

INNER: Radial N. (C6,C7)

A: Extend and abducts hand at wrist; active during fist clenching
(Posterior-Superficial)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: Dorsal aspect of base of 3rd metacarpal

INNER: Deep branch of radial (C7,C8)

A: Extend and abduct hand at the wrist joint
(Posterior-Superficial)

Extensor Digitorum
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: Extensor expansions of medial 4 digits

INNER: Deep branch of Radial N. (C7,C8)

A: Extends medial four digits primarily at metacarpophalangeal joints; secondarily at interphanlageal joints
(Posterior-Superficial)

Extensor Digiti Minimi
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerous

I: Extensor expansions of 5th digit

INNER: Deep branch of Radial N. (C7,C8)

A: Extends 5th digit primarily at metacarpophnlangeal joint; secondarily at interphanlageal joint
(Posterior-Superficial)

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerous; posterior border ulna via shared aponeurosis

I: Dorsal aspect of base 5th metacarpal

INNER: Deep branch of Radial N. (C7,C8)

A: Extends and adducts hand at wrist joint; active during fist clenching
(Posterior-Intermediate/Superficial)

Brachioradialis
O: Proximal two thirds of supraepicondylar ridge of humerus

I: Lateral surface of distal end of radius proximal to styloid process

INNER: Radial N. (C5,C6,C7)

A: Relatively weak flexion of forearm; maximal when forearm is in midpronated position
(Posterior- Deep)

Extensor Pollicus Brevis
O: Posterior surface of distal third of radius and interosseous membrane

I: Distal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

INNER: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7,C8), continuation of deep branch of Radial N.

A: Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint; extends carpometacarpal joint
(Posterior- Deep)

Extensor Pollicis Longus
O: Posterior surface of middle third of ulna and interosseous membrane

I: Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb

INNER: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7,C8), continuation of deep branch of Radial N.

A: Extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal joint; extends metacarpophalangeal and carpophalangeal joints
(Posterior-Deep)

Extensor Indicis
O: Posterior surface of distal third of ulna and interosseous membrane

I: Extensor expansion of 2nd digit

INNER: Posterior interossuous nerve (C7,C8), continuation of deep branch of Radial N.

A: Extends 2nd digit (enabling its independent extensions); helps extend hand at wrist
(Posterior-Deep)

Abductor Pollicis Longus
O: Posterior surface of proximal halves of ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane

I: Base of 1st metacarpal

INNER: Posterior Interosseous N. (C7,C8), continuation of deep branch of Radial N.

A: Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint
(Posterior-Deep)

Supinator
O: Lateral epicondye of humerus; radial collateral & anular ligaments; supinator fossa; creast of ulna

I: Lateral posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius

INNER: Deep branch of Radial N. (C7,C8)

A: Supinates forearm; rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly (if elbow is flexed)


Anconeus
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: Lateral surface of olcranon and superior part of posterior surface of unla

INNER: Radial N. (C7,C8,T1)

A: Assists triceps in extending forearm; stabilizes elbow joint; may abduct ulna during pronation
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