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First time seeing anatomically modern human?
100,000 years ago
going down through the layers is going back in time
study of what happens to an organism when it dies as it fossilizes
2 factors needed to make a fossil
right environment
nature of the organism
Mitochondrial Eve Theory
All modern women are descendants of one single african women from 200,000 years ago. Coming from mitochondrial studies from women thru the years.
earliest traces of hominid behavior in fossil record?
stone tools
when were first hominids in Africa?
4 million years ago
the 1st ancestor to for sure make tools was?
homo habillus in old duvai gorge
electron spin resonance
measures trapped background radiation that is absorbed by everything on earth and a magnetic field causes it to bounce
Fossil found in South Africa uses what method of dating?
electron-spin resonance
first human feature in evolution?
bipedalism- the ability to walk on back feet.

first seen in Lucy
differential preservation
somethings fossilize, somethings don't
out of africa model supports...
neanderthals not ancestor
multiregional model supports...
neanderthals are ancestors
why are cave paintings in Europe still there?
because they used metallic powder which is not organic
3 major arguments supporting replacement theory
  • marginalization-effecient at exploiting resources
  • humans wiped out all other similar species
  • interbreeding with neanderthals
name of tools neanderthals used?
middle paleolithic
There is no general agreement on where to place neanderthals in ancestory
smaller teeth and jaws- ate soft foods
cradle of mankind
Asia (Homo erectus)
relative dating isn't as precise as chronometric
homo erectus first developed in africa and migrated out of africa 1 million years ago
what does mitochondrial DNA suggest regarding neanderthals and modern humans?
we aren't directly descendant from neanderthals

neanderthals differ by 26 mutations from modern humans
ancestor associated with fire
homo erectus- this happened just before homo erectus leaves africa fire helped them survive mild climates
larger teeth and jaws- ate hard foods
when using the Potassium Argon dating what do you actually date?
the volcanic ash that's above or below- not the fossil directly

range reflects possible lower age and possible higher age
does nuclear DNA suggest origin for modern humans?
2 parts from Africa
dating method used in Israel and South Africa?
Electron-spin resonance
bias in fossil record
  • money- cost
  • politics- unstable govts
  • access- some places physically inaccessable
upper paleolithic culture
middle paleolithic culture
acheulian culture
oldowan culture
australopithicus aethiopicus
australopithicus boisei

east africa
australopithicus robustus

southern africa
australopithicus africanus

southern africa
australopithicus afarensis

east africa
australopithicus afarensis
tuang child
homo sapiens from europe

40,000- present years.

anatomically modern human
neanderthal from middle east

stone tools- middle paleolithic

pre-modern humans
neanderthal from europe

300,000- 30,000 years ago

found through out old world

accomplished hunters

lives in caves
homo erectus from indonesia

eventually becomes hunter

first use of fire 1 million years ago

homo erectus from asia

2 million to 200 thousand years ago

stone tools- acheulian culture/hand axe
homo erectus from africa

2 million to 200 thousand years ago

stone tools- acheulian culture/hand axe

ancestor to archaic homo sapiens
homo habillis

found in east and southern africa

2.5-1.5 million years ago

first stone tools- oldowan culture

louis leakey- olduvai gorge
homo habillis 1470
first hominids

4-1 million years ago

east and southern africa

no stone tools- veggie diet
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