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What are the 2 the most important muscles of Inhalation?
The Diaghragm and the external intercostals.
What are the three parts of the most important muscles for respiration?
Diaghragme-3 parts
-Sternal part
-Costal part
-Vertebral part
What are the muscles of the neck important for inhalation?
Scalenes: anterior, medius and posterior

Sternocleidomastoid
What are the muscles of the anterior thorax which are important for inhalation? (4)
subclavius
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis Minor
Serratus anterior
What are the muscles of the posterior thorax which are important for speech? (5)
Costal elevators
Serratus posterior superior
iliocostalis cervicis
Trapezius
Latissimus Dorsi
Abdominal muslces important for exhalation? (4)
-Rectus abdominis
-External oblique abdominis
-Internal oblique  abdominis
-Transverse abdominis
Thorax muscles important for exhalation? (3)
-transverse thoracic
-subcostals
-internal intercostals
Muscles of posterior thorax important for exhalation? (3)
-Quadratus lumborum
-Serratus posterior inferior
-latissimus dorsi
What is tidal volume? TV
volume of air inspired and expired in one respiratory cycle
What is Inspiratory reserve volume? IRV
amount of air that can be taken in beyond that inhaled in the tidal volume. Max that can be inhaled from end of inspiratory position
What is expiratory reserve volume? ERV
The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly expired from the resting end expiratory level
What is the reserve volume? (residual air)
The amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal exhalation. Cannot be expelled
What is inspiratory capacity made up of?
IC= TV+IRV
What is Vital capacity made up of?
VC= TV+ERV+IRV
What is functional residual capacity? FRC
FRC = ERV+RV
Total lung capacity?
TLC= TV+IRV+ERV+RV
What is thhe minimum subglottal pressure needed for speech?
3cmH20
What is the range of pressures used for speech
3 cmH20 to 20 cmH20
What is pressure needed for conversational speech?
6-7 cm H20
What are the 5 intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
-thyroarytenoid
-posterior cricoarytenoid
-lateral cricoarytenoid
-interytenoid
-cricothyroid
What does the thyroarytenoid do?

what parts comprise it?
adductor tensor relaxer

made up of vocalis and muscularis
What is the role of cricoarytenoid?
the only ABductor muscle of the larynx
What is the role of the lateral cricoarytenoid?
adductor, relaxer
What is the role of the interarytenoid?
adductor
What is the rule of the cricothyroid?
tensor, enlongates and stretches the vocal fold. Important for pitch risin
What two muscles assist in adduction of the VF's?
1.inter arytenoids-obique and transverse
2. lateral cricoarytenoid LCA
What muscles is responsible for ABduction?
Posterior cricoarytenoid PCA
What muscles are glottal tensors? 2
Cricothyroid: elongates and stretches

Thyroarytenoid: vocalis and muscularis: tenses
What muscles are glottal relaxers?
Thyroarytenoid (unopposed)

Lateral cricoarytenoid with TA
Name the 4 suprahyoid muscles
Digastric
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Stylohyoid
Name the 4 Infrahyoid muscles.
Sternohyoid
Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid
Omohyoid
Which muscle has two bellies (anterior, posterior) and is responsible for raising the hyoid and for lowering th mandible?
Digastric
What muscles are the accessory muscles for inhalation?
Scaleneus anterior
Scalenus medius
scalenus posterior
Sternocleidomastoid
What is the mylogyoid (forms the floor of the mouth) responsible for?
raises hyoid, floor of mouth and tongue
May help to depress mandible
Important for swallowing
What muscle is located superior to mylohyoid and pulls the hyoid up and forward?
Geniohyoid
Which muscle is lateral to posterior belly of digastricus, originates from styloid process, splits into two and draws the hyoid back and up.
Stylohyoid
Name the infrahyoid muscles. (4)
Sternohyoid
omohyoid
thyrohyoid
sternothyroid
which muscle is an infrahyoid but eleates the larynx?
Thyrohyoid, decreases distance between thyroid and hyoid
Where is the motor nucleus for CN X and XI?
Nucleus ambiguus: in lower brainstem in the medulla
The vagus nerve trunk branches and gives rise to?
The recurrent larygeal nerve, which supplies all of the intrinsic muscles except for cricothyroid
What innervates cricothyroid?
innervated by fibers from another branch of vagus, the external branch.
What is susceptible to damage during open heart surgery?
the left recurrent laryngeal nerve which loops under the aortic arch.
What neve is responsible for sensory innervation?
the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
What is the general sensory ganglion of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve?
the spinal nucleus of V
What is the visceral ganglion of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerv?
The nodose ganglion
Which cranial nerve innervates anterior belly of digastric and they mylohyoid?
CNV trigeminal
Which cranial nerve innervates the posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid?
CN VII facial (nucleus is the motor nucleus of VII (facial motor nucleus)
All extrinsic muscles except for posterior belly of digastric, stylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric and mylohyoid are innervated by?
CN XII hypglossal
What is the nucleus of CN XII?
hypoglossal nucleus
what 3 nerves supply the extrinsic muscles?
CN V, VII and XII
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