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Which disorder occurs when either the secretion or action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) goes awry and may be either primary or secondary to other conditions, such as head injury, intracranial tumor, intracranial aneurysm, or infarct.
Diabetes Insipidus
What is an endemic goiter?
Colloid goiters are also known as endemic goiters and usually develop when the thyroid gland enlarges in response to low iodine levels in the bloodstream or when it is unable to utilize iodine properly.
What is the treatment for a goiter?
If thyroidectomy is done, most of the gland is removed. Medical treatment consists of oral administration of potassium iodide, as well as foods high in iodine.
What is exophthalmos?
Bulging of the eyeballs, which may occur due to periorbital edema with Graves disease (hyperthyroidism)
Shakiness (tremors), Sweating, Pallor, cold, clammy skin, Disorientation, irritability, Headache, Hunger, Blurred vision are signs of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia
When calcium blood levels are low, the nerve cells become excited and stimulate the muscles with too many impulses, resulting in spasms called what?
Tetany
Which hormore also causes constriction of the arterioles in the body, which results in increased blood pressure?
ADH
What is the onset, peak and duration of Lantus insulin?
onset 1–2 hr, No pronounced peak, duration 24 hr
What is a tumor, usually found in the adrenal medulla, that causes excessive secretion of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)?
A pheochromocytoma
What are the classic “polys” in diabetes mellitus?
polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
Which hormone accelerates anabolism of proteins and catabolism of fats; and slows catabolism of carbohydrates (glucose)?
GH - Growth Hormone
What is the emergency treatment for Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma (HHNC)?
Large amounts of intravenous fluids; regular insulin
Where should insulin be injected and why?
Subcutaneously and not into the muscle, because it enters the bloodstream too quickly and could cause hypoglycemia.
What is the onset, peak and duration of Ultralente insulin?
onset in 2 hours, peaks in 16-20 hours, duration 24+ hours....(found in Foundations book, ch 51, pg 1790)
What is DKA and how is it caused?
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the blood), formerly called diabetic coma, is a severe metabolic disturbance caused by an acute insulin deficiency, decreased peripheral glucose utilization, and increased fat mobilization and ketogenesis.
In which disorder is it that the pancreas does not produce adequate amounts of insulin to metabolize glucose normally?
diabetes mellitus
What are the disorders of the Adrenal Glands?
Cushings Syndrome, Addisons disease and pheochromocytoma
Which hormone(s) regulate (1) growth and development, (2) metabolism, and (3) activity of the nervous system?
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
Name the hormones secreted by the ANTERIOR pituitary gland:
GH, ACTH, GH, Gonadotropic (FSH & LH), MSH and Prolactin
What is the role of the Thyroid Gland?
Metabolism
What is the outer section of the adrenal glands called and what is secreted?
The adrenal cortex secretes 3 different hormones called steroids, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones
What are the signs and symptoms of Hyperglycemia?
Fatigue, Flushed, hot skin, Dry mouth, excessive thirst, Frequent urination, Rapid, deep respirations, odor of acetone on breath, Drowsiness, headache, and Depressed reflexes are signs of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemiaFatigue, Flushed, hot skin, Dry mouth, excessive thirst, Frequent urination, Rapid, deep respirations, odor of acetone on breath, Drowsiness, headache, and Depressed reflexes
What is the role of the parathormone?
Antagonist to calcitonin from the thyroid. It increases the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium from the kidney tubules and accelerates the elimination of phosphorus in the urine.
What is the onset, peak and duration of Regular insulin?
onset 30–60 min, peak 2–4 hr, duration 6–8 hr
What are the signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
HTN, sometimes as high as 300/175, severe headache and palpitations
Name the female and male sex hormones:
Estrogens for the female and androgens for the male
What are the Signs & Symptoms of DI and the nursing interventions?
Polyuria, Polydipsia, Low ADH and nursing interventions would include strict I&Os for fluid balance, montior electrolytes and advising pt to wear medic alert bracelet
What is the emergency treatment for hyperglycemic reaction or Diabetic Ketoacidosis?
Insulin, usually regular
Which is the most important human glucocorticoid, is essential for life, and regulates or supports a variety of important cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, and homeostatic functions?
Cortisol
What are the signs and symptoms of Cushings syndrome?
Moonface, buffalo hump, muscle wasting, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, protein in the urine, as well as increased urinary calcium excretion, which may lead to the development of renal calculi (kidney stones), depression, osteoporosis and kyphosis
Where is the thyroid located?
The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped, with one lobe lying on either side of the trachea and lies just below the larynx.
What condition may result from adrenalectomy, pituitary hypofunction, or long-standing steroid therapy. The most common cause is an autoimmune response. Adrenal tissue is destroyed by antibodies against the patient\\\'s own adrenal cortex.
Addison\\\'s disease
Which type of diabetes mellitis is non–insulin-dependent and is most often controlled by diet or oral hypoglycemics?
Type 2
Which hormone promotes the release of milk and stimulates uterine contractions during labor?
Oxytocin
What is the onset, peak and duration of Rapid Acting (i.e. Lispro) insulin?
Onset in 15 minutes, peaks in 60-90 minutes, duration 3-4 hours
Which hormones are primarily involved in water and electrolyte balance and indirectly manage blood pressure and from where are they secreted?
Mineralocorticoids from the adrenal cortex (outer section) of the adrenal glands
Which gland is the master gland?
The pituitary gland because through the negative feedback system it exerts its control over the other endocrine glands.
Which are the hormones secreted by the POSTERIOR of the pituitary gland?
ADH and Oxytocin
What controls the function of T3 and T4 hormones?
The release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland.
Which test can give you an average blood glucose level from the past 3 months and how?
HBA1C by measuring the amount of glucose in the Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes)
Which hormone stimulates breast development during pregnancy and stimulates milk secretion after delivery of baby?
Prolactin
What occurs rarely and can usually be attributed to manipulation of the thyroid during surgery, causing the release of large amounts of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream, nausea, vomiting, severe tachycardia, severe hypertension, and occasionally hyperthermia up to 41° C (106° F). Extreme restlessness, cardiac dysrhythmia, and delirium may also occur. Diagnostic tests indicate increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased TSH.
Thyroid Storm
What is Orinase?
A first generation Sulfonylurea
Which hormone causes the kidneys to conserve water by decreasing the amount of urine produced?
ADH antidiuretic hormone
What is the best meal planning method for patients with Diabetes?
3 meals with snacks in between
Patients with pheochromocytomamay have elevated levels of Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). How can this be measured?
With a 24-hour urine sample.
What are the signs and symptoms of Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma (HHNC)?
Skin hot/dry, normal respirations, Lethargy, decreased consciousness; may lose consciousness,polyuria, polydipsia, decreased B/P, Glycosuria present; no ketonuria, blood glucose 600–2000
What is a test for latent tetany in which carpal spasms are induced by inflating a sphygmomanometer cuff on the upper arm to a pressure exceeding systolic blood pressure for 3 minutes; used in hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia.
Trousseau\\\'s sign
What is the purpose of giving DM patient a snack?
To prevent hypoglycemia
What diseases are associated with the Pituitary Gland?
Acromegamly, Gigantism, Dwarfism, Diabetes Insipidus, SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone)
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