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Olfactory N (I)
Loss of Smell (Anosmia)

Injury to the cribriform plate; congenital absence
Optic N (II)
Blindness/visual field abnormalities, loss of papillary constriction.

Direct trauma to the orbit; disruption of the optic pathway.
Oculomotor N (III)
Dilated pupil, ptosis, loss of normal papillary reflex, eye moves down inferiorly and laterally (down and out)

Pressure from an aneurysm arising from the posterior communicating, posterior cerebral, or superior cerebellar artery; pressure from a herniating cerebral uncus (false localizing sign); cavernous sinus mass or thrombosis.
Trochlear N (IV)
Inability to look inferiorly when the eye is adducted (down and in)

Along the couse of the nerve around the brainstem; orbital fracture.
Trigeminal N (V)
Loss of sensation and pain in the region supplied by the three divisions of the nerve over the face; loss of motor function of the muscles of mastication on the side of the lesion.

Typically, in the region of the trigeminal ganglion, though local masses around the foramina through which the divisions can pass can produce symptoms. (Superior Orbital Fissure, Foramen rotundum, foramen ovale).
Abducens N (VI)
Inability of lateral eye movement

Brain lesion or cavernous sinus lesion extending onto the orbit.
Facial N (VII)
Paralysis of facial mm below the eye; paralysis of facial mm. Abnormal taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of tongue and dry conjunctivae Paralysis of contralateral facial mm below the eye
Damage to the branches within the parotid gland Injury to temporal bone; viral inflammation of the nerve Brainstem injury
Vestibulocochlear N (VIII)
Progressive unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ear)

Tumor at the cerebellopontine angle
Glossopharyngeal N (IX)
Loss of taste to the posterior 1/3 of tongue and sensation of the soft palate

Brainstem lesion; penetrating neck injury
Vagus N (X)
Soft palate deviation with deviation of the uvula to the normal side; vocal cord paralysis

Brainstem lesion; penetrating neck injury
Accesory N (XI)
Paralysis of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius mm

Penetrating injury to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Hypoglossal N (XII)
Atrophy of ipsilateral mm of the tongue and deviation towards the affected side: speech disturbance

Penetrating injury to the neck and skull base pathology.
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