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Osteoblast
cells that form bones
Chondroblast
cells that form the matrix of cartilage
Cacellous Bone
Spongy Bone
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Ossification
formation of bone by osteoblast
Mesenchyme Cells
Osteochondral progenitor cells...makes both bone & cartilage
Osteoclasts
Brakes down bones
Lacunae
Houses or is the space occupied by osteocytes
Central Canal
contains blood vesels and nerves
Epiphysis
end of long bones
Epiphyseal plate
made of hyaline cartilage
Canaliculi
Canals occupied by osteocyte cell processes
Trabeculae
Structural unit of spongy bone
Articular Cartilage
Covers bones @ joints
PTH (Parathyroid Gland)
hormone that decreases blood calcium
Diaphysis
Shaft of long bones
Yellow Marrow
fills medullary cavity of diaphyses
Red Marrow
site of hematopoiesis
Calcitonin
Hormone that decreases blood calcium
Why are tendons slow to heal?
they are avascular
What fiber exist at the outter layer of the bone in which fibers of the tendon become continous?
Periosteum
What type of ossification makes spongy bone?
Intramenbraneous Ossification
What type of ossification makes compact bone?
Endochondial Ossification
True of false - Flat bones are composed solely of cancellous bone?
false; they have both
The lline that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis in a long bone is?
Ephidediual line
What is the outter layer of Periosteum composed of? Inner layer?
Fiborous C.T/ osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocondriol, & stem cells
The inner surface of the bone where it meets the marrow is covered by a
endosteum
  Articular cartilage
covers bone at joints has no perichondrium
Two types of growth of hyaline cartilage?
appositional & intersitital
What if mineral is removed from the bone
bone is too bendable
What if collagen is removed from the bone
bone is too brittle
During ossification, how and where is collogen produced?
produced by the E.R. and Golgi/ released by exocytosis
How are nutrients transferred from cell to cell?
Gap junctions
What are some properties of osteclast cells
multinucleated
H ions are pumped across the membrane and acid is produced/ enzyme release that eats bone/
When/What is woven one formed
It is collagen fibers/ formed during fetal development and bone repair
What is woven bone remodeled into?
Lamellar bone
What are trabeculae
interconnecting rods or plates in bones/ -spaces filled with bone marrow, oriented around stress lines, covered in endosteum
What is is medullary cavity?
It is red marrow in children but changes to yellow in LIMB bones and SkULL
how long is hyaline cartilage present
until growth stops
what is the function of sharpy fibers?
to strenghten attachment of tendon to the bone
how is the endosteum similar to the peristerium?
it lines all internal spaces even those in cancellous bone
Describe the make up of spongy bones
a sandwich of cancellous bone between compact bone/ no diaphysis or epiphysis
What are example of bones that intramembranous ossfication make
many skull bones, parts of the manible, diaphysis of clavicles (takes place in connective tissue)
What are example of bones that endochondral ossfication make
bones of the base of the skull, epiphysis of the clavicles and most remaining bones of the skeletal system (takes place in cartilage)
mesenchyme cells become what?
osteoblast (build bone
)
What is the process of Endochondral Ossification
1. Cartilage model is formed by chondoblast and surrounded by perichondrium (not at joints)
2.The perichodrium @ the shaft becomes the peristeium     3. A bone colar is produced and the cartilage in that area is calcified.
4. Osteblast and blood vessels invade this area forming the primary ossification center. Osteblast lay down matrix forming cancellous bone.  5.Step 4 continues... the calcifed cartilage began to form in the epiphysis and medullary cavities form in center of diaphysis.
6. 2nd-ary ossification occurs in epipyhsis
7. the left over cartilage becomes epipyhsis plate and articular cartilage
8. in mature bone the plate becomes epipyshsis line and all cartilage becomes bone except for at the articular cartilage.
Where does longitudal growth occur
epiphyseal plate
At what age does the epiphysis plate close
it bemes the line and closes @ 12-25 years
What zone houses new bone growth in the epipyhsis plate
classification zone/ hypertrophy zone
Growth at articular cartilage increase the size of the bone with out what?
epiphysis eg. short bones
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