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First Aorist Active Indicative
ελυσα I loosed ελυσας You loosed ελυσε(ν) He/she/it loosed ελυσαμεν We loosed ελυσατε You loosed ελυσαν They loosed
First Aorist Active Indicative (Liquid)
Instead of adding σα, they only add alpha and sometimes modify the tense stem. εμεινα I remained εμεινας You remained ευεινε(ν) He/she/it remained εμεναμεν We remained εμεινατε You remained εμειναν They remained
First Aorist Middle Indicative
ελυσαμην I loosed ελυσω You loosed ελυσατο He/she/it loosed ελυσαμεθα We loosed ελυσασθε You loosed ελυσαντο They loosed
First Aorist Passive Indicative
ελυθην I was loosed ελυθης You were loosed ελυθη He/she/it was loosed ελυθημεν We were loosed ελυθητε You were loosed ελυθησαν They were loosed
Second Aorist Passive Indicative
εγραφην I was written εγραφης You were written εγραφη He/she/it was written εγραφημεν We were written εγραφητε You were written εγραφησαν They were written
First Future Passive Indicative
λυθησομαι I will be loosed λυθηση You will be loosed λυθησεται He/she/it will be loosed λυθησομεθα We will be loosed λυθησεσθε You will be loosed λυθησονται They will be loosed
Second Future Passive Indicative
αποσταλ ησ ομαι I will be sent αποσταλ ησ η You will be sent αποσταλ ησ εται He/she/it will be sent αποσταλ ησ ομεθα We will be sent αποσταλ ησ εσθε You will be sent αποσταλ ησ ονται They will be sent
Perfect Active Indicative
λελυκα I have loosed λελυκας You have loosed λελυκε(ν) He/she/it has loosed λελυκαμεν We have loosed λελυκατε You have loosed λελυκασι They have loosed
Perfect Middle/Passive Indicative
λελυμαι I have been loosed λελυσαι You have been loosed λελυται He/she/it has been loosed λελυμεθα We have been loosed λελυσθε You have been loosed λελυνται They have been loosed
Square of Stops
voiceless voiced aspirates labial π β φ velar κ γ χ dental τ δ θ
Participles
Participle are formed by adding \"ing\" to a verb.The key to understanding the meaning of the participles is to know their type of action, also called the aspect (aspect tense stem present continuous present aorist undefined aorist perfect completed perfect).Two kinds of participles: adverbial-participle directed toward the verb adjectival-participle that modifies a noun or pronoun. Tense-present ντ, aorist ντ, and perfect οτ. A participle can be active, middle, passive, or deponent in voice. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in the formation of the word. An adjective must agree with the noun that it modifies in case, number, and gender. Participles do not have subjects, but agree with the word it is modifying. Negation is ου in the indicative. Participles are not indicative in form so they are negate with an μη.Participles do not use personal endings. 8 things to remember when parsing: tense, voice, participle, case, number, gender, lexical form, and meaning.
Participle Morpheme Chart
masc fem neut act ντ ουσα ντ mid/pas μενο μενη μενο
6 Forms of the Participle
masc fem neut nom sg ων ουσα ον gen sg οντος ουσης οντος
Present Active Participle
3 1 3 masc fem neut nom sg λυων λυουσα λυον gen sg λυοντος λυουσης λυοντος dat sg λυοντι λυουση λυοντι acc sg λυοντα λυουσαν λυον nom pl λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα gen pl λυοντων λυουσων λυουσων dat pl λυουσι(ν) λυουσαις λυουσι(ν) acc pl λυοντας λυυσας λυοντα
Present Active Participle of ειμι
3 1 3 masc fem neut nom sg ων ουσα ον gen sg οντος ουσης οντος dat sg οντι ουσαι οντα acc sg οντα ουσαι οντα nom pl οντες ουσαι οντα gen pl οντων ουσων οντων dat pl ουσι(ν) ουσαις ουσι(ν) acc pl οντας ουσας οντα
Present ((Continuous) Participle: Middle/Passive
2 1 2 masc fem neut nom sg λυομενος λυομενη λυομενον gen sg λυομενου λυομενης λυομενα dat sg λυομενω λυομενη λυομενω acc sg λυομενον λυομενην κυομενον nom pl λυιμενοι λυομεναι λυομενα gen pl λυομενων λυομενων λυομενων dat pl λυμενοις λυομεναις λυμενοις acc pl λυομενους λυομενας λυομενα masc fem neut nom sg ουενος ομενη ουενον gen sg ομενου ομενης ομενου
3 Questions Before Translating
Aspect-find the tense stem for the participle Voice-active, middle, passive, or deponent Meaning-what does the lexical form mean? (case, number, and gender)
First Aorist (Undefined) Participle Chart
Augmented first aorist stem + tense formative + participle morpheme + case endings active λυ+σα+ντ+ες middle λυ+σα+μενο+ι passive λε+θε+ντ+ες
First Aorist Active Pariciple
3 1 3 masc fem neut nom sg λυσας λυσασα λυσαν gen sg λυσαντος λυσασης λυσαντος dat sg λυσαντι λυσαση λυσαντι acc sg λυσαντα λυσασαν λυσαν nom pl λυσαντες λυσασαι λυσαντα gen pl λυσαντων λυσασωη λυσαντων dat pl λυσασι(ν) λυσασαις λυσασι(ν) acc pl λυσαντας λυσασας λυσαντα masc fem neut nom sg σας σασα σαν gen sg σαντος σασης σαντος
First Aorist Middle Participle
2 1 2 masc fem neuter nom sg λυσαμενος λυσαμενη λυσαμενον gen sg λυσαμενου λυσαμενης λυσαμενου dat sg λυσαμενω λυσαμενη λυσαμενω acc sg λυσαμενον λυσαμενην λυσαμενον nom pl λυσαμενοι λυσαμεναι λυσαμενα gen pl λυσαμενων λυσαμενων λυσαμνων dat pl λυσαμενοις λυσαμεναις λυσαμενοις acc pl λυσαμενους λυσαμενας λυσαμενα masc fem neut nom sg σαμενος σαμενη σαμενον gen sg σαμενου σαμενης σαμενου
First Aorist Passive Participle
3 1 3 masc fem neuter nom sg λυεις λυθεισα λυθεν gen sg λυθεντος λυθεισης λυθεντος dat sg λυθεντι λυθειση λυθεντι acc sg λυθεντα λυθεισαν λυθεν nom pl λυθεντες λυθεισαι λυεντα gen pl λυθεντων λυθεισων λυεντωη dat pl λυθεισι(ν) λυθεισαις λυθεισι(ν) acc pl λυθεντας λυθεισας λυθεντα masc fem neut nom sg θεις θεισα θεν gen sg θεντος θεισης θεντος
Second Aorist (Undefined) Participle
Unaugmented second aorist stem + Connecting vowel + Participle morpheme + Case endings active: βαλ + ο+ ντ + ες middle: γεν + ο + μενο + ι passive: γραφ + ε + ντ + ες
Second Aorist Active Participle
3 1 3 masc fem neuter nom sg βαλων βαλουσα βαλον gen sg βαλοντος βαλουσης βαλοντος dat sg βαλοντιvβαλουση βαλοντι acc sg βαλοντα βαλουσαν βαλον nom pl βαλοντες βαλουσαι βαλοντα gen pl βαλοντων βαλουσων βαλοντων dat pl βαλουσι(ν) βαλουσαις βαλουσι(ν) acc pl βαλοντας βαλουσας βαλοντα masc fem neut nom sg ων ουσα ον gen sg οντος ουσης οντος
Second Aorist Middle Participle
2 1 2 masc fem neuter nom sg γενομενος γενομενη γενομενον gen sg γενομενου γενομενης γενομενου dat sg γενομενω γενομενη γενομενον acc sg γενομενον γενομενην γενομενον nom pl γενομενοι γενομεναι γενομενα gen pl γενομενων γενομενων γενομενων dat pl γενομενοις γενομεναις γενομενοις acc pl γενομενους γενομενας γενομενα masc fem neut nom sg ομενος ομενη ομενον gen sg ομενου ομενης ομενου
Second Aorist Passive Participle
3 1 3 masc fem neuter nom sg γραφεις γραφειςα γραφεν gen sg γραφεντος γραφεισης γραφεντος dat sg γραφεντι γραφειση γραφεντι acc sg γραφεντα γραφεισαν γραφεν nom pl γραφεντες γραφεισαι γραφεντα gen pl γραφεντων γραφεισων γραφεντων dat pl γραφεισι(ν) γραφεισαις γραφεισι (ν) acc pl γραφεντας γραφεισας γραφεντα masc fem neut nom sg εις εισα εν gen sg εντος εισης εντος
Adjectival Participles
Adjectives function in three ways:attribute, substantive, and predicate. When an adjectival participle modifies a noun or pronoun, it performs a function of a noun. When it functions like an adjective it is called an attribute participle. It can be translated with the \"ing\" using key words like \"while\", \"after\", and \"because\". When an adjectival participle functions as a noun, it is called a substantival participle. Using the case, number, and gender, it can be translated using words like \"the one who is.\" You could use a singular such as \"one,\" \"he,\" \"she,\" or \"that\" if it is neuter. For plural you could use \"they\" or \"those.\" Instead of \"who,\" you might use \"which.\" Examples are to find the case, number, and gender for the following: the ones who, that which, to those who, and of that which. Always look at the context to find out what kind ofparticiple it is. For adjectival or adverbial find out if the participle is preceded by the article. The adverbial participle is always anarthrous while the adjectival participle is usually articular. When translating try to see what makes more sense? If there is an article, the participle cannot be adverbial ans vice versa.
The Seven Questions to Ask of Any Participle You Meet
1) What is the case, number, and gender of the participle and why (i.e. what word is it modifying)? 2) Is the action (or state of being) in the participle directed toward a verb (adverbial) or a noun (adjectival)? 3) If it is adverbial, do you use \"while\" or \"after\"? 4) If it is adjectival, is it attributive or substantival? 5) What is the aspect of the participle? Continuous (present) or undefined (aorist)? 6) What is the voice of the participle? 7) What does the verb mean? What word is the participle modifying? Adverbial-modifying (while/after) adjectival-attributive modifying \"who or which\"/substantive-functioning \"the one who\". Aspect-present: continuous/aorist: undefinedVoice-active, middle, passive Meaning-definition of the word.
Chart: First Perfect Active Participle
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Tense formative (κ) + Participle morpheme + Case endings λε + λυ + κ + οτ + ες = λελυκοτες
First Perfect Active Participle
3 1 3 masc fem neut nom sg λελυκως λελυκυια λελυκος gen sg λελυκοτος λελυκυιας λελυκοτος dat sg λελυκοτι λελυκυια λελυκοτι acc sg λελυκοτα λελυκυιαν λελυκος nom pl λελυκοτες λελυκυιαι λελυκοτα gen pl λελυκοτων λελυκυιων λελυκοτων dat pl λελυκοσι(ν) λελυκυιαις λελυκοσι(ν) acc pl λελυκοτας λελυκυιας λελυκοτα masc fem neut nom sg κως κυια κος gen sg κοτος κυιας κοτος
Chart: First Perfect Middle/Passive Participle
Reduplication + Perfect tense + Participle Morpheme + Case endings λε + λυ + μενο + ι = λελυμενοι
First Perfect Middle/Passive Participle
2 1 2 masc fem neut nom sg λελυμενος λελυμενη λελυμενον gen sg λελυμενου λελυμενης λελυμενου dat sg λελυμενω λελυμενη λελυμενω acc sg λελυμενον λελυμενην λελυμενον nom pl λελυμενοι λελυμεμαι λελυμενα gen pl λελυμενων λελυμενων λελυμενων dat pl λελυμενοις λελυμεναις λελυμενοις acc pl λελυμενους λελυμενας λελυμεναv masc fem neut nom sg μενος μενη μενον gen sg μενου μενης μενου
Genitive Absolute
A genitive absolute is a noun or pronoun and a participle in the genitive that are not grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. They are usually at the beginning of a sentence in narrative material that acts ad the subject with modifiers. You will translate this as a temporal clause using \"while\" if it is present and \"after\" if the participle is aorist.While speaking-λαλουντος. After speaking-λαλησαντος. If there is a subject in the genitive, use it and the finite form of the verb.While he heard-ακουοντος αυτου. After he heard-ακουσαντος αυτου.
Periphrastic Constructions
Different Greek tenses do not use helping verbs like English that uses \"will\" to make a verb future and \"be\" to make it passive. Greek uses different tense formatives. One situation occurs when Greek uses ειμι and a participle together to form a single idea called a periphrastic construction. It was used originally to emphasize a continuous action, but not necessarily in the Koine Greek. Now it is used in place of the third person plural perfect middle/passive. periphrastic tense construction present-present of ειμι + present participle imperfect imperfect of ειμι + present participle future future of ειμι + present participle perfect present of ειμι + perfect participle pluperfect imperfect of ειμι + perfect participle future perfect future of ειμι + perfect participle
Alternative Adverbial Participles
Instrumental Participle- uses \"by\" and indicates the means by which an action occurred. We toiled by working with our hands. κοπιωμεν εργαζομενοι ταις ιδιαις χερσιν.Regular Verb-when a participle accompanies a verb, the participle is translated as a finite verb. But Jesus answered and said...ο δε Ιησους αποκριθεις ειπεν...Concessive Participle-the key word is \"though\" and state a concessive idea. For though I am a sinner, God loves me. αμαρτανοντα γαρ ο θεος αγαπα με.
Master Participle Chart
morpheme tense voice case endings ντ all active (aorist passive) 3-1-3 οτ perfect active 3-1-3 μενο/η all middle/passive (all middle) 2-1-2 tense/voice redup stem t.f.c.u. morpheme & c.e. nom plural six memory forms present active/present/o/ντ/ουσα/λεγοντες/ων, ουσα, ον, οντος, ουσης, οντος present mid/pas/ present/o/μενο/η/λεγιμενοι/ομενος,ομενη, ομενον, ομενου, ομενης, ομενο 1 aorist active/ aorist active/σα/ντ/σα/λυσαντες/σας,σασα,σαν, σαντος, σασης, σαντος 1 aorist middle/aorist active/σα/μενο/η/λυσαμενοι/σαμενος... 1 aorist passive/aorist passive/θε/ντ/λυθεντες/θεις, θεισα, θεν, θεντος, θεισης, θεντος 2 aorist active/ aorist active/ο/ντ/βαλοντες/ων... 2 aorist middle/aorist active/ο/μενο/η/γενομενοι/ομενος... 2 aorist passive/aorist passive/ε/ντ/γραφεντες/εις,εισα,εν, εντος, εισης, εντος perfect active/λε/perfect active/κ/οτ/λελυκοτες/κως, κυια, κος, κοτος, κυιας, κοτος perfect mid/pas/λε/perfect mid/pas/μενο/η/λελυμενοι/μενος...
Present Subjunctive
1 sg λυω 2 sg λυης 3 sg λυη 1pl λυωμεν 2 pl λυητε 3 pl λυωσ(ν)
Subjunctive (Middle/Passive)
1sg λυωμαι 2sg λυη 3 sg λυηται 1 pl λυωμεθα 2 pl λυησθε 3 pl λυωνται
First Aorist Active Subjunctive
1 sg λυσω 2 sg λυσης 3 sg λυση 1 pl λυσωμεν 2 pl λυσητε 3 pl λυσωσι(ν)
Second Aorist Active Subjunctive
1 sg λαβω 2 sg λαβης 3 sg λαβη 1 pl λαβωμεν 2 pl λαβητε 3 pl λαβωσι(ν)
First Aorist Middle Subjunctive
1sg λυσωμαι 2 sg λυση 3 sg λυσηται 1 pl λυσωμεθα 2 pl λυσησθε 3 pl λθσωνται
Second Aorist Middle Subjunctive
1 sg γενωμαι 2 sg γενη 3 sg γενηται 1 pl γενωμεθα 2 pl γενησθε 3 pl γενωνται
First Aorist Passive Subjunctive
1 sg λυθω 2 sg λθης 3 sg λυθη 1 pl λυθωμεν 2 pl λυθητε 3 pl λυθωσι(ν)
Second Aorist Passive Subjunctive
1 sg γραφω 2 sg γραφης 3 sg γραφη 1 pl γραφωμεν 2 pl γραφητε 3 pl γραφωσι(ν)
Subjunctive Clues
1. Following ινα, εαν, αν and other words. whenever οταν if εαν whoever ος αν wherever οπου αν until εως until εως αν 2. Lengthened connecting vowel (ω/η). 3. No augment in the aorist.
Present Infinitive
active ειν middle εσθαι passive εσθαι
First Aorist Infinitive
active σαι middle σασθαι passive θηναι
Second Aorist Infinitive
active ειν middle εσθαι passive ηναι
Perfect Infinitive
active κεναι middle σθαι passive σθαι
Present Active Imperative
2 sg λυε (You) loose! 3 sg λυετω Let him loose! 2 pl λυετε (You) Loose! 3 pl λυετωσαν Let them loose!
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