Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

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target organ
the organ, gland or structure effected by the hormone-has receptors which bind to the hormone
produces hormones from ductless glands-hormones released directly into the blood to have effects elsewhere
produce enzymes, tears, sweat, saliva, mucus, semen, etc. from glands that have ducts
with ependymal cells of 3rd ventricle
hypothalamus functions
1. produces the releasing hormones which regulate the adenohypophysis
2. produces adh/avp and oxytocin which are stored & released from the neurohypophysis.
How many hormones are produced in the hypothalamus?
9. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH),
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH),
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH),
Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH),
Dopamine=Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone,
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone,
Antidiuretic Hormone=Vasopressin,
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
causes adenohypophysis to release Gonadotropins
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)
causes adenohypophysis to release Thyrotropin
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
causes adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone
Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)
causes adenohypophysis to release Prolactin
Dopamine=Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone
inhibits adenohypophysis to release Growth Hormone
inhibits adenopophysis from releasing Growth Hormone, also made by delta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the Pancreas
Antidiuretic Hormone=Vasopressin
made by Hypothalamus & stored in Neurohypophysis, inc. water retention and vasoconstriction
made by Hypothalamus & stored in Neurohypophysis, causes uterine contraction and "let-down" of milk
How many hormones does the adenohypophysis=anterior pituitary gland make?
1. Gonadotropins-follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone
2. thyrotropin=thryoid stimulating hormone (POMC)
5.Growth Hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
causes granulosa cells of the ovaries to make estrogen from testosterone under the influence of the enzyme aromatase
Luteinizing Hormone
causes ovulation (release of egg from ovaries)
Thyrotropin=Thyroid Stimulating hormone (tsh)
causes thyroid gland to release thyroxin (t4)
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)
A large prohormone that can be enzymatically chopped into 4 different hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or Corticotropin, enkephalin, beta endorphin, melanocyte stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) or Corticotropin
causes adrenal cortex to release cortisol
natural opium-like pain killers made by your body
Beta Endorphin
natural opium-like pain killers made by your body-responsible for the "runner's high"
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
stimulates the production of melanin in skin cells; pro-opiomelanocortin(POMC)-Ant. pituitary gland
causes mammary glands to produce milk-ant. pit gland
Growth Hormone
stimulates mitosis (cell division i.e.growth)-ant. pit gland
What hormones are produced in the Neurohypophysis=posterior pituitary gland?
1.antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)=Vasopressin(vp)
antidiuretic hormone(adh)=vasopressin(vp)
inc. water retention & strong vasoconstriction (inc. bp)
uterine contractions & milk "let-down"
pituitary stalk
follicular cells
surround colloid-release thyroxin from colloid
thyroxin (t4)
inactive form which becomes t3 (the active form) to inc. metabolism
pink "stuff" w/in follicles
parafollicular cells
clusters of cell between follicles-release calcitonin, reduces plasma calcium by building bones
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Inc. plasma calcium by digesting bones
adrenal cortex
produces steroid hormones: cortisol, aldosterone, sex steroids
reduces stress, inflammation, trauma, burns, disease
water retention
sex steroids
establish and maintain primary and secondary sexual characteristics
produces sympathetic hormones: epinephrine(adrenalin),norepinephrine(noradrenalin)
epinephrine (adrenalin)
inc. heart rate, strength of contraction, vasoconstriction
norepinephrine (noradrenalin)
inc. heart rate, strength of contraction, vasocontraction
Pancreas produces what cells?
alpha, beta, and delta cells
alpha cell
produce glucagon-causes liver to inc. plasma glucose from glycogen
beta cells
produce insulin-reduces plasma glucose by causing its entry into cells
delta cells
produces somatostatin which inhibits GH (somatotropin)
acinar cells
exocrine-produce dig. enzymes and bicarbonate ion
produces testosterone
produces estrogen and progesterone
predominant in children only- not in adults
thymosin and thymopoietin
directs the maturation of "T" lymphocytes
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