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the science of foods & yhr nutrients & other substances they contain, and of their actions within the body (including ingestion, digestion, asorption, transport, metabolism, & excretion)
nutrition
products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth & repair of issues
foods
the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks
diet
foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions; sometimes called designer foods or nuteceuticals
functional foods
nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body
phytochemicals
the capacity to do work
energy
chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials & regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues; may also reduce the risks of some diseases
nutrients
not containing carbon or pertaining to living things
inorganic
a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds
organic
nutrients a person must obtain from food because they body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs
essential nutrients
list the 6 types of nutrients:
inorganic:
  • minerals
  • water
organic:
  • carbohydrates
  • lipids (fats)
  • proteins
  • vitamins
the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use; name these 3 nutrients
energy-yielding nutrients:
  • carbohydrates
  • fat
  • protein
units by which energy is measured
calories
a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
energy density
organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
vitamins
inorganic elements; some are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
minerals
the full complement of genetic material (DNA) in the chromosomes of a cell; consists of 46 chromosomes in humans
genome
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the interactions between diet and disease
nutritional genomics
a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US & Canada; these values are used for planning & assessing diets
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
the lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy
requirement
the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age & gender group
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
the amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected, over time, to experience deficiency symptoms
deficient
the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined
Adequate Intake (AI)
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people & beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy & nutrients & reduce the risk of chronic diseases
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients
malnutrition
deficient energy or nutrients
undernutrition
excess energy or nutrients
overnutrition
a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug and diet histories; antropometric measurements, physical examinations, and laboratory tests
nutrition assessment
relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height & weight
anthropometric
out in the open & easy to observe
overt
a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
primary deficiency
a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient
secondary deficiency
a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared
subclinical deficiency
hidden, as if under covers
covert
a national public health initiative under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Health & Human Services that identifies the most significant preventable threats to health & focuses efforts towards eliminating them
Healthy People
diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration (diabetes, heart disease, cancer)
chronic diseases
a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal
risk factor
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