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Which major change in American political and social life was not accomplished between 1913 and 1945?
gay and lesbian individuals finally achieved full acceptance by mainstream culture.
Which was not one of the modernists characteristic responses to the vexed issue of how to engage with literary tradition?
the literary tradition represented a body of work that it was hopeless to try and better: all that was left for authors were ironic parodies of earlier masterpieces.
In what way did social debates of the 1920's mirror Ralph Waldo Emerson's belief, in the 1840's, that "whosoever would be a man, must be a non-conformist"?
small town values of respectablility and duty clashed with new emphasis on diversity and tolerance in the younger generation.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between American literary modernism and feminism?
the Providence Players.
Why did the writings of Karl Marx appeal to so many American writiers and intellectuals in the 1920's and 30's?
Marx's economic ideas explained the growing inequalities between labor and management, and his political agenda offered a means to help the struggling worker.
After the end of World War I, American tried to return to pre-war modes of life.  Which of the following was one of the attempts made to accomplish this goal?
Congress enacted an exclusionary immigration law which put obstacles on immigration from countries whose people did not resemble most Americans.
What was the name of the small, experimentla theatre group, founded in 1915 by Susan Glaspell, Eugene O'Neill, and other dramatists in order to challenge Broadway's control over the American drama scene?
the Providence Players.
Which neighborhood of New York City became the center of a sudden flowering of artistic expression by African-Americans in the 1920's and 1930's?
Harlem
Which of the following statements best typifies American modernism as a patriotic, nationalist project?
although many American modernists did see themselves contributing to national literature, most high modernists were expatriates concerned with how American culture fit into an international aesthetic.
How did new scientistic advances concerning relativity, uncertainty, quantum theory, and the size of the universe affect the relationship betwenn science and literature?
authors began to think of literature as an alternate explanation of reality, far better than science at explaining subjective experience, moral choices, and meaning.
Modernist literature typicaly contains such a heightened degree of self-reflexity that the act of asking questions about reality often seems to trump the provisional conclusions the characters or narrators arrive at by end of the work week.  What effect did this de-emphasis of closure and certainty have on the types of subjectivity represented by modernist works?
authors included traditionally "uniliterary" perspectives and references drawn from the author's personal life experiences to make the text seem more realistic.
Which of the following types of dramas performed in the United States during this perios was not a distinctively American innovation (rather than one borrowed or adapted from another culture)?
Eugene O'Neill's structural experiments with lighting and stage production.
In what ways did authors use Holloywood to bridge the divide between serious and popular modernist literature?
authors like Raymond Chandler used motion pictures to establish a respectable artistic reputationthrough experimentation with the new medium of film.
Works of medernist literature typically contains fragment, discontinuities, and juxtapositions rather than definitive interpretations, stable perspectives, and traditional plot development.  Instead, what kind of overarching structures did works such as James Joyce's Ulysses and T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land provide their readers?
a "mythic method" that suggested that readers should use classical narratives to make sense of the fragments that made up the text.
Which of the following events in European modernism occured bfore World War II?
The New York Armory Show introduces paintings such as Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase to American viewers.
In what way does the character of Helga Crane in Nella Larsen's novel Quicksand illustrate the divisions among African-American intellectuals during the 1920's?
Helga is torn between her desire to help lift up her fellow African-Americans and her equally strong desire to avoid being trapped by such responsibility.
Which of the following was not one of the reasons why American Communists were soured by the actions of Josef Stalin, the dictator of the Soviet Union in the 1930's?
Stalin's government actively supported the Spanish government against Franco in the Spanish Civil War.
According to Sigmund Freud, the inventor of psychoanalysis, what cause could most modern mental illnesses be tracked back to?
repression and inhibition.
What kind of response did Franklin Roosevelt's administration offer to the crisis of the Great Depresssion during the 1930's?
Roosevelt's liberal proposals were a series of prgmatic reforms designed to cushion the disaster of the Depression and avert a revolution.
Which technological development had the biggest impact on the interwar years?
automobiles.
How did Freudian theories of sexuality affect the fight for women's equality?
since Frued's idea of the unconscious identifies erotic desires in women as well as men, his theories helped people see that the sexual double standard that favored men was arbitrary and repressive of women.
Why did many American authors treat the trial of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, condemned to death in 1921 for a robbery and homicide in Boston, from a sympathetic standpoint?
they believed that Sacco and Vanzetti had been convicted mostly because they were anarchists.
which of the following best describes how the influential authors of the period1914-1945 responded to the "internal fractures" (1178, full ed.) caused by modernity?
they sought to extend and enhance the experiments of the realist period.
What was the affect of modernism on African American writers like Zora Neale Hurston, Nella Larsen, and Langston Hughes?
black authors were inspired by the modernist spirit of renewal and experimentation, and the mixed African American elements like blues, jazz, and fulk culture into traditional genres.
Which was not a direct result of American involvement in World War II?
loyalties were divided between American of British and German heritage.
How did modernist poets' emphases on directness, precision, and vividnes of expression affect both poetry and prose during this period?
both prose and poetry became a good deal shorter.
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