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Cellular reproduction
Or cell division. Dna is duplicated into daughter cells.
2 types of cell reproduction in organisms
Asexual and sexual
Asexual reproduction
When a cells duplicate themselves without fertilization. I.E. Amoeba
Sexual reproduction
Organisms require fertilization in order to pass on genes. Eggs and sperm are created through meiosis
Genome
Complete set of a organism\\\'s genes
Histones
Association of DNA with small proteins (coiling and folding). Found only in Eukaryotes
Nucleosome
DNA wrapped around a protein core of eight histone molecules.
Sister Chromatids
The are copies of the DNA created during DNA replication. 2 copies are made. They separate and attach to the daughter cells.
Centromere
Area were the sister chromatids are coiled together tightly.
Cell cycle
Order of sequences from when a cell is form to when it divides.
Interphase
Cell performs all of its normal functions. Phase where most of the cell spends its time. 90% of cell cycle
3 subphase of interphase
G1 subphase-growth and duplication, S subphase-DNA replication, G2 subphase-create sister chromatids
Mitotic phase
10% of cell cycle. Where cell divides into 2 daughter cells. Consists of mitosis and cytokinesis
Mitosis
Part of Mitotic phase where nucleus and chromosomes divide and form 2 daughter nuclei. Overlap with cytokinesis. Unique to Eukaryotes
Cytokinesis
Part of Mitotic phase where cytoplasm splits into two.
4 stages of Mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Prophase
Centrosomes (clouds of cytoplasm) create mitotic spindle (microtubules that grab chromosomes) . Nuclear envelope breaks. Chromsomes start to spilt.
Metaphase
Mitotic spindle fully form. Chromosomes line up in the middle. Spindle attaches to them and start to pull to Centromere on opposite sides.
Anaphase
Sister chromatids separate. Spindle attach to chromatid pull chromatids and ones not attached push away.
Telophase
Fully seperated nuclear envelope forms. Opposite of interphase. Cytokinesis starts during
Difference in Plant and Animal Cytokinesis
In plants, cells split by forming a cell plate between instead of cleavage furrow (indentation of cytoplasm). Vesicles bring cell wall material to the middle.
Cell cycle control system
Proteins that signal the cell cycle to start
Benign tumor
When the cell cycle control system malfunctions and cause a growth to occur. This growth is found at the original site.
Cancer
Problem with the cell cycle. Divide excessively and other behaviors.
Malignant tumor
A lump resulting from cancer cells. Can spread into other tissues replacing normal growth.
Metastasis
When cancer cells spread beyond their original site.
4 Cancer groups
Carcinomas, Sarcomas, leukemia, and lymphoma
Carcinomas
Cancer that originates in the external or internal coverings of the body. I.E. Skin and intestine lining
Sarcomas
Cancer that starts in the tissues of the body. I.E. Bones and muscles
Leukemias and Lymphomas
Cancers of blood-forming tissues. I.E. Bone marrow and lymph nodes.
3 types of cancer treatment
Removal, Radiation, Chemotherapy (slash, burn, poison)
Radiation Therapy
Use radiation to disrupt cell division of cancer cells thus killing the cells. Cancer cells divide more then normal ones.
Chemotherapy
Use drugs to disrupt cell division of cancer cells thus killing the cells. Cancer cells divide more then normal ones.
Meosis
The process of sexual reproduction. Offspring is not identical in contrast to asexual.
Somatic cell
Typical body cell. 46 chromosomes in humans
Karyotype
Chromosome display/arrangement. Have to break cell in metaphase
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosome has a twin based on size and shape. The carry the same sequence of genes.
Sex Chromosome
The pair in a karyotype that does not match (XY). Females have XX Males have XY
Autosomes
Chromosomes found in both male and females.
Life Cycle
Sequence of stages leading from the adults of one generation to the next.
Diploid
Organisms that have 2 homologous sets of chromosomes. I.E. Humans, plants, and animals. Diploid number is 2n
Gametes
Made by Meosis (egg and sperm cells) each have a single set of chromosomes 22 autosomes plus a X or Y.
Haploid
Cell with a single set of chromosomes. Haploid number is n.
Fertilization
Fusing of 2 gametes. Haploid egg and sperm.
Zygote
Resulting diploid from fertilization. Fertilized egg
Meosis
Similar to mitosis but occurs twice. First time it separate tetrads into sister chromotids. 2nd time completes process. Also crossing over occurs in the first phase
Tetrad
Four chromatids are joined together and exchange segments.
Crossing over
When chromatids exchange segments. Occurs in meoisis 1
Nondisjunction
Occurs when members of a chromosome pair fails to separate.
Polyploid
A new species steming from more than 2 sets of homologous chromosomes. Down syndrome found at the 21st chromosome set
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