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What is the role of the parathormone?
Antagonist to calcitonin from the thyroid. It increases the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium from the kidney tubules and accelerates the elimination of phosphorus in the urine.
What is the role of the Thyroid Gland?
Metabolism
What hormones are produced by the thyroid and for what purpose?
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate (1) growth and development, (2) metabolism, and (3) activity of the nervous system. Calcitonin is a hormone also released by the thyroid gland. It decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be stored in the bones.
What is the make up of urine?
Urine is 95% water; the remainder is nitrogenous wastes and salts.
What is a neurogenic bladder?
Neurogenic bladder means the loss of voluntary voiding control, resulting in urinary retention or incontinence.
What acts as the opposite of insulin?
Glucagon
Where is ADH produced?
Antidiuretic Hormone is produced in the posterior side of the pituitary gland and causes the kidneys to conserve water by decreasing the amount of urine produced. It also causes constriction of the arterioles in the body, which results in increased blood pressure (BP).
What are the signs and symptoms of endometriosis?
Pelvic pain with menstruation, aching, cramping, a bearing-down sensation in the pelvis, or lower back dyspareunia.
What is secreted by the Adrenal Cortex and for what purpose?
Steroids: Mineralocorticoids: These are primarily involved in water and electrolyte balance and indirectly manage blood pressure, Glucocorticoids: The most important of these is cortisol (involved in glucose metabolism and provides extra reserve energy in times of stress). These also exhibit antiinflammatory properties. Sex hormones: Androgens are male hormones and estrogens are female hormones.
Epinephrine = speeds up or slows down?
Speeds up (adrenaline)
What electrolyte is off the norm with Addison\\\'s disease?
Potassium
What hormone is secreted by the Parathyroid and what is its purpose?
Parathormone, as an antagonist to calcitonin from the thyroid, parathormone tends to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood. It also regulates the amount of phosphorus in the blood.
What is the normal platelet count?
150,000–400,000/mm
What are the signs and symptoms of Cushings syndrome?
Moonface, buffalo hump, muscle wasting, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, protein in the urine, as well as increased urinary calcium excretion, which may lead to the development of renal calculi (kidney stones), depression, osteoporosis and kyphosis
What is the normal PSA value and what is this test for?
Normal range is less than 4 ng (nanogram)/mL. Elevated PSA levels result from prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and prostatitis.
What does the hormone ADH do?
ADH causes the cells of the distal convoluted tubules to increase their rate of water reabsorption.
Positive Chvostek and Trousseau\\\'s indicate what?
hypocalcemia
What causes DI?
Diabetes insipidus occurs when either the secretion or action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) goes awry.
Which are the hormones secreted by the POSTERIOR of the pituitary gland?
ADH and Oxytocin
What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
Breast tumors are usually small, solitary, irregularly shaped, firm, nontender, and nonmobile. There may be a change in skin color, feelings of tenderness, puckering or dimpling of tissue, nipple discharge, retraction of the nipple, and axillary tenderness.
What is paraphimosis
infection behind the glans
What are the signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors?
he symptoms are primarily pressure from an enlarging pelvic mass, pain (including dysmenorrhea), abnormal uterine bleeding, and menorrhagia with menstrual periods. If the fibroid tumor becomes large enough to cause pressure on other structures, there may be backache, constipation, and urinary symptoms.
What type of diet should the patient with Cushing\\\'s syndrome adhere to?
The diet should be lowered in sodium to help decrease edema. Reduced calories and carbohydrates will help control hyperglycemia, and foods high in potassium will help correct hypokalemia.
Viagra should not be administered to men taking what?
Viagra has been shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates; therefore its administration to patients who are using nitrates (either regularly or intermittently) in any form is contraindicated.
If your patient is diagnosed with urolithiasis, what must the nurse implement?
All urine will be strained. Because stones may be any size, even the smallest speck must be saved for assessment. The nurse should encourage fluids and administer analgesics as ordered.
Provide a few nursing DX for DI:
Deficient fluid volume, risk for, related to excessive urine production, Impaired skin integrity, risk for, related to altered state of hydration
What is Calcitonin?
Calcitonin is a hormone also released by the thyroid gland. It decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be stored in the bones.
What is the peak for Regular insulin?
2-4 hours
What precautions should a nurse initiate with chancre?
stressing good handwashing technique to the patient, encouraging follow-up visits with the physician, and informing the patient that he or she should absolutely not engage in sexual intercourse until cured.
What causes Acromegaly?
An overproduction of somatotropin (growth hormone, or GH) in the adult
What are the normal values for Potassium?
3.5 to 5
What are the nursing interventions for Acute Mastitis?
Treatment involves application of warm packs, support of the area with a well-fitting brassiere (which also supplies comfort), and systemic treatment with antibiotics.
What is secreted by the Pineal Gland?
It secretes the hormone melatonin, which seems to inhibit reproductive activities by inhibiting the gonadotropic hormones.
What is IVP?
INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM - evaluates structures of the urinary tract, filling of the renal pelvis with urine, and transport of urine via the ureters to the bladder.
Explain the typical appeaance of the Addison\\\'s diseas patient:
Changes in the color of the mucous membranes and the skin, with the appearance of darkly pigmented areas commonly observed. Skin hyperpigmentation, a striking feature, is seen primarily in sun-exposed areas of the body, at pressure points, over joints, and in creases, especially in palmar creases.
What is the relaxation of the tissues, muscles, and ligaments of the bladder causes a displacement of the bladder into the vagina?
Cystocele
After radical mastectomy, exercises prevent what?
Prevent muscle contractures
What hormones are secreted by the Adrenal Medulla?
(1) epinephrine (adrenaline), and (2) norepinephrine.
Explain potential complications following a parathyroidectomy:
One possible cause of tetany is the inadvertent removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands during surgery.
What is TAH-BSO?
total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
How is lyphodema prevented after a mastecomy?
Avoiding unnecessary trauma (e.g., venipuncture, BP) to the arm on the operative side.
What is peritoneal dialysis and what is the patient most at risk for?
Peritoneal dialysis can be performed with a minimum of equipment and by the patient who is ambulatory. Infection, Peritonitis may arise from sepsis. Pain and hemorrhage may accompany instillation of the dialysate.
Which type of neurogenic bladder exhibits loss of sensation and loss of motor control?
Spastic (reflex or automatic) bladder
What is TURP?
transurethral resection of the prostate
What type of irrigant is used for the continuous bladder irrigation and how do we measure the output?
The irrigant is an isotonic solution. To determine urine output, the nurse will subtract the amount of irrigation fluid used from the Foley catheter output to calculate urine output. This is reported as “actual urine output.”
What would be the nursing interventions for a DI patient due to trauma?
The urinary output of unconscious patients should be carefully monitored. Skin turgor should be assessed frequently, as should the condition of oral mucous membranes. The patient should be weighed daily and fluid intake and output should be recorded daily. Oral fluids should not be limited in an effort to reduce urinary output.
What should the patient with Bacterial vaginitis be instructed?
Abstain from sexual intercourse during treatment.
What are the normal sodium values?
135-145
The relaxation of the supporting tissues to the rectum causes the rectum to move toward the posterior vaginal wall and form a what?
rectocele
What is a condition in which the prepuce is too small to allow retraction of the foreskin over the glans penis?
Phimosis
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