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hormones control these major processes
-growth & development
-provide responses to deal w/ stress
-maintain blood's water, electrolyte & nutrient balance
-regulate cellular metabolism
major endocrine glands
pineal gland
pituitary gland
parathyroid glands
thyroid gland
thymus gland
adrenal glands
gonads (testes &ovaries)
considered neuroendocrine structure
hypothalamus of brain
mixed gland; both endocrine & excocrine in nature
pancreas is endocrine gland b/c is secretes__:___&___into__
pancreas is exocrine gland b/c it releases a variety of ___ ___ into a ___ that opens into the small intestine
digestive enzymes
organs that belong to other systems yet possess small cluster of hormone producing cells
small intestines
primary tissue of endocrine glands
glandular epithelial tissue
example of a endocrine gland that partly consists of modified neurons that secrete hormones
adrenal medulla

endocrine glands are richly supplied w/ blood
2 chemical classes of hormones
1.amino-acid based
2.steroid based
example of amino based hormone
protein hormones like insulin
examples of steroid based hormones
derived from cholesterol:
all sex hormones (estrogen &testosterone)
all hormones made by adrenal cortex(corticosteroids)
cellular features abdunant in ptn hormone secreting cells
rough ER
golgi apparatus
cells that make&secrete steroid based hormones contain lots of:
smooth ER
lipid droplets
any given hormone only afects certain cells or organs called __ __ or __ __
target cells
target organs
for a given hormone to have an influence on a cell, that cell must bear a specific ptn __ to which a hormone can bind
ptn receptor may be on the __ __ or in the __ of a cell
plasma menbrane
pituitary gland hangs from the inferior surface of the __ by a small stalk called the __
pituitary gland aka __
pituitary gland is located in the __ __ of the __ __ of the __ bone
hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
loc in anterior neck on suf of trachea slightly inferior to adams apple (thyroid cartilage) of larynx
thyroid gland
thyroid gland has 2__ __ joined by central bridge of tiss called __
lateral lobes
thyroid gland composed of hollow microscopic spherical structures called --
follicles of thyroid gland
follicles wall made of glandular epithelial cells called -- --.
follicle cells
space inside follicles filled with substance called --, the precursor to thyroid hormone/thyroxine
bodys major metabolic hormone.
thyroxine/thyroid hormone
-- metabolic rate (rate at which body uses oxygen to transform nutrients into chem energy & body heat
increases BMR
pituitary has 2 lobes:
__ __/__ & __ __/__
anterior pit./adenohypophysis
posterior pit./neurohypophysis
Anterior Pituitary
tiss compo?
glandular epithelium tiss
in kids, thyroxine imp for normal tiss growth & dev, especially in relation to --&-- systems
skeletal & nervous systems
untreated hyposecretion of thyroxine in childhood results in --
(characterized by dwarfism & mental retardation)
in adults, hyposecretion of thyroxine results in mental&physcial sluggishness.  may involve weight gain &greater sensitivity to cold cuz metabolic rate is too low
hypersecretion of thyroxine results in high metabolic rate, weight loss, nervousness & rapid heart rate. typ of hyperthyroidism
graves disease
lump in neck caused by enlarges thyroid gland
one is located on top of each kidney
adrenal (suprarenal) glands
each adrenal consists of outer-- --& inner -- --
adrenal cortex

adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex consists of -- --
glandular epithelium
adrenal medulla consistsof modified neurons of the -- div of the ANS
3 layers of adrenal cortex,
each secretes particular group of steriod hormones
zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis
hormones produced & secreted by adrenal cortex are steriods collectively known as--
corticosteriods include these 3 groups of hormones:
sex hormones
main mineralocorticoid
glucocorticoids include:
-- & --
cortisol & hyrdocortisone
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