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What is the treatment for active TB?
Multiple medications
When a patient is on birth control pills and she is prescribed antibiotics, what should the nurse tell the patient?
To use extra protection, condoms
What is the most common side affect of cepholasporin?
Vertigo
Long acting barbiturates are used to treat status epilepticus and what else?
They may also be used to treat seizures caused by tetanus, fever, or drugs.
What do we watch for with the patient on ADH?
Dehydration
What is given for symptoms of overdose?
Narcan, a narcotic antagonist that may be used to reverse overdoses of narcotics (whether by accident or on purpose).
What should patients watch for when taking ASA?
Bleeding is the most frequently seen adverse event.
Long-term use of dopaminergic and anticholinergic agents often leads to what?
Akinesia (loss of movement), tardive dyskinesia (difficulty in performing voluntary movements), and dystonia (impairment of muscle tone).
What are the insulin antaganists?
oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, epinephrine, and preparations used for thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Thiazide diuretics may elevate glucose levels.
What effect does alcohol have on the diabetic patient?
A variety of other drugs, alcohol, and anabolic steroids may increase the hypoglycemic effects of insulin.
What is the peak time for regular insulin?
2-4 hours
What meds are used to treat abdominal discomfort, intestinal spasms and increase motility and acid production?
Antispasmatics and anticholinergics
Define narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum antibiotics:
Narrow Spectrum are effective against only a few organisms. Broad-Spectrum are effective against a wide variety of organisms.
What are the adverse reactions to penicillin?
Neuropathy, fixed drug eruptions (usually a single spot that itches), nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, anemia, blood dyscrasias, rash, erythema, urticaria (hives), angioedema (swelling of the skin and mucous membranes), laryngeal edema , and shock.
What is helminthiasis?
When a patient has worms, the infestation is called helminthiasis. The condition is usually caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, or whipworms.
What drug is used to break up gallstones?
Chenodial
Which antibiotic should be taken on an empty stomach?
Lincomycin and tetracycline are best absorbed on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals, and should be taken with a full glass of water. The patient should particularly avoid taking milk products with tetracycline.
What are the adverse reactions of sulfonamides?
Headache, drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, insomnia, peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, hypoglycemia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, abdominal pain, drug fever, fever, malaise
What would be the signs of opioid overdose?
Bradypnea; irregular, shallow breathing; sedation; coma; miosis; cyanosis; gradual drop in BP; oliguria; clammy skin; and hypothermia.
What would the nursing interventions be for the patient on cepholosporin?
Pt w/prev allergy to PCNs may also be allergic to some cephalosporins. Use with extreme caution because of a high incidence of cross-sensitivity. Nephrotoxicity is greater in elderly patients and in patients with poor renal function.
What are the adverse reactions of broad-spectrum antibiotics?
Superinfections may develop, particularly after long-term use. These reactions, such as diarrhea, oral thrush, or vaginal itching, are usually irritating but mild.
What is given for sport-related injuries like muscle sprains, etc.
NSAIDs
What is the primary drug used to treat patients in manic states?
Lithium
What is by far the most commonly used anticonvulsant?
Dilantin (pg 252)
Nursing interventions for patient on steroid therapy?
Give medication in the morning, taper meds when stopping, avoid alcohol as it enhances the tendancy to cause ulcers, wear medic-alert bracelet
Where is insulin produced in the body?
Pancreas
What is the drug of choice for status epilepticus?
Diazepam is used intravenously to control seizures and is the drug of choice for treatment of status epilepticus.(pg 253)
What is important to know about patients using lithium?
There is a very narrow therapeutic margin for lithium, and careful monitoring of blood levels is required to avoid toxic overdosages.
How are hydantoins used?
Hydantoins are used to treat grand mal and psychomotor seizures. Sometimes they are used to treat status epilepticus, migraine, and trigeminal neuralgia. They are also used in some nonepileptic psychotic patients.
What is penicillin used to treat?
Penicillin is the broad-spectrum drug of choice for susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
What is antabuse?
(Disulfiram) produces a severe sensitivity to alcohol that results in a very unpleasant reaction.
How does chemotherapy work?
They slow cell growth or delay the spread of the malignant cells into other parts of the body.
What is the therapeutic level of Lithium?
The therapeutic serum lithium level is 1 to 1.5 mEq/L in most laboratories.
What are the adverse reactions to antineoplastics?
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and diarrhea are seen with almost all products. Other common reactions include alopecia and bone marrow depression. Renal toxicity, hepatic toxicity, ototoxicity, ocular effects, peripheral neurotoxicity, and hypersensitivity
What are the nursing interventions for the patient on neoplastics?
Special skin care may be needed, Dehydration must be avoided, and bowel regularity must be maintained, The patient\\\'s meals should be made as palatable and attractive as possible,
Name some of the broad-spectrum antibiotics
erythromycin, tetracyclines, vancomycin, bacitracin
What lab test is used to identify organisms?
Organisms can be identified by their shape, and many can be classed as gram positive or gram negative, depending on whether they are stained by Gram stain or not.
What complication can come with long-term narcotic use?
Narcotic agonist analgesics are used to treat moderate to severe acute pain.
What\\\'s the difference between bactericidal and bacterostatic?
Bactericidal agents kill the bacteria; Bacteriostatic limit or slow the growth of the bacteria, weakening or eventually leading to the death of the bacteria. (The ¬タワcidal¬タン or ¬タワstatic¬タン part of the word gives a clue about the activity)
Tylenol is used in conjunction with opioids for what?
Codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone are often used in combination with acetaminophen in the office or clinic setting.
Which test is for thyroid functioning?
TSH
How are antimalarials used?
To prevent malaria and treat the symptoms
What are Sulfonomides?
Class of antibiotics usually used to treat acute and chronic urinary tract infections, particularly cystitis, pyelitis, and pyelonephritis, when these infections are caused by Escherichia coli or Nocardia asteroides.
What are some of the patient teaching points for sulfonomides?
Take on empty stomach, drink large amounts of water, avoid excessive exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light
How do antivertigo/antiemetic agents work?
These drugs reduce indirect stimulation of the vomiting center and reduce the levels of dopamine and acetylcholine, which cause vomiting.
What are the onset, peak and duration times for short-acting (regular) insulin
onset 30-60 min peak in 2-4 hr duration 6-8 hr
Medications for duodenal ulcer:
protonix, tagamet, zantac
Long-term use of narcotics can cause what?
Constipation
What is vasopressin?
ADH - Vasopressin regulates the reabsorption of water by the kidneys.
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