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NONSPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES
A. SURFACE MEMBRANE BARRIERS B. NONSPECIFIC CELLULAR AND CHEMICAL DEFENSES
1ST LINE OF DEFENSE
SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES
SKIN
physical barrier C BUM – low pH 5. Provide environment encourage a growth of normal flora.
MUCOUS MEMBRANES
-EYES
-NOSE AND RESPIRATORY TRACHTS
-GI.
-GU
EYES
blink, tears contains, lysosome – enzyme
NOSE AND RESPIRATORY TRACHTS
mucous membrane and hair help traps dust and dirt
GI.
stomach acid will kill most bacteria that get into. Bacteria on intestine
GU
male have long urethra;  female short urethra vagina very acidic prevent.
SURFACE MEMBRANE BARRIERS
1ST LINE OF DEFENSE
NONSPECIFIC CELLULAR AND CHEMICAL DEFENSES
1.PHAGOCYTES
2.NATURAL KILLER CELLS
3.INFLAMMATION: STEPS OF TISSUE RESPONSE TO INJURY
4.ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN
PHAGOCYTES
-are the white blood cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
-MACROPHAGES
-NEUTROPHILS
MACROPHAGES
-stay a live after then kill bacteria
-are white blood cells within tissues, produced by the division of monocyte.
NEUTROPHILS
– acute infection/ destroy them cell in process in attack.
-A type of white blood cell, specifically a form of granulocyte, filled with neutrally-staining granules, tiny sacs of enzymes that help the cell to kill and digest microorganisms it has engulfed by phagocytosis.
PHAGOCYTES action
1.ENGULF PATHOGEN - > FORM PHAGOSOME (VACUOLE) - > FUSE WITH LYSOSOME 2.IF PATHOGEN RESISTANT TO ACID HYDROLASES OF LYSOSOME: - > RESPIRATORY BURST 3. OPSONIZATION

4. DEFENSINS
OPSONIZATION
The process by which bacteria are altered in such a manner that they are more readily and more efficiently engulfed by phagocytes.
DEFENSINS
-are a family of small cationic, antibiotic peptides that contain six cysteines in disulfide linkage. The peptides are abundant in phagocytes and small intestinal mucosa of humans and other mammals and in the hemolymph of insects. They contribute to host defense against microbes and may participate in tissue inflammation and endocrine regulation during infection. Bioengineered defensins are potentially useful as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in infections
NATURAL KILLER CELLS
-A cell that can react against and destroy another cell without prior sensitization to it.
-are part of our first line of defense against cancer cells and virus-infected cells.
NATURAL KILLER CELLS action
-increase inflammation response.
INFLAMMATION: STEPS OF TISSUE RESPONSE TO INJURY
-prevent the spread of harmful substances, swelling, pain, redness, heat.
A. VASODILATION AND INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY.
B. PHAGOCYT MOBILIZATION
VASODILATION AND INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY.
- Increase redness and increase heat and cause pain.
INFLAMMATORY CHEMICALS
A. HISTAMINE
B. KININS
C.PROSTAGLANDINS
D. COMPLEMENT
E.LYMPHOKINES
HISTAMINE
-Substance that plays a major role in many allergic reactions. Histamine dilates blood vessels and makes the vessel walls abnormally permeable.
KININS
-any of various polypeptide hormones that are formed locally in the tissues and cause dilation of blood vessels and contraction of smooth muscle
PROSTAGLANDINS
-Any of a group of potent hormonelike substances that are produced in various mammalian tissues, are derived from arachidonic acid, and mediate a wide range of physiological functions, such as control of blood pressure, contraction of smooth muscle, and modulation of inflammation
COMPLEMENT
-The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream. The proteins work with your immune system and play a role in the development of inflammation
LYMPHOKINES
-Any of various substances released by T cells that have been activated by antigens. They function in the immune response through a variety of actions, including stimulating the production of nonsensitized lymphocytes and activating macrophages.
VASODILATION
- > HYPEREMIA
-Widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of the muscular wall of the vessels. What widens is actually the diameter of the interior (the lumen) of the vessel. The opposite of vasoconstriction.
HYPEREMIA
* BENEFITS EXUDATE: - dilute harmful chemical- positive increase oxygen in area                                 1 .make more nutrient                                 2. Increase amt. of protein                                 3. Isolate damage area.
ELICIT POSITIVE CHEMOTAXIS
- movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
PHAGOCYTE MOBILIZATION
1. MACROPHAGES & NEUTROPHILS KEEP COMING 2. INJURED CELLS RELEASE LEUKOCYTOSIS

3. MONOCYTES COME -> BECOME MACROPHAGES
INJURED CELLS RELEASE LEUKOCYTOSIS-INDUCING FACTORS
- causing release of neutrophil from red bone marrow.
*POSITIVE CHEMOTAXIS TO INJURY
*MARGINATION (=PAVEMENTATING)
*DIAPEDESIS OUT OF CAPILLARIES TO TISSUE
*PHAGOCYTOSIS
POSITIVE CHEMOTAXIS TO INJURY
calling in more wbc
MARGINATION (=PAVEMENTATING)
– monocyte grats on to the wall and roll ground.
DIAPEDESIS OUT OF CAPILLARIES TO TISSUE
– wbc spleen to capillary wall then out to the tissue
ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN
-group of protein attack foreign invader
THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM
– consist of about 20 diff. protein in blood plasma
THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM action
- DIRECT LYSIS OF PATHOGENS
-OPSONIZATION
-AID IN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
DIRECT LYSIS OF PATHOGENS
– punch hole in pathogen (membrane attack complex) mac
OPSONIZATION
The process by which bacteria are altered in such a manner that they are more readily and more efficiently engulfed by phagocytes.
AID IN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
– respiratory response
THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM constituents
-C1 – C9 -FACTORS B,D,& PROPERDIN -REGULATORS
2 COMPLEMENT PAHTYWAYS
-CLASSICAL PATH WAY (INITIATED BY IMMUNTE SYSTEM) -ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY (INITIATED BY CERTAIN POLYSACCHARIDES) -COMMON PATHWAY
CLASSICAL PATH WAY (INITIATED BY IMMUNTE SYSTEM)
*COMPLEMENT FIXATION: Ag-Ab COMPLEX BINDS C1 - >
*C4 & C2 JOIN COMPLEX - > C3 CLEAVAGE OF COMMON PATHWAY
ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY (INITIATED BY CERTAIN POLYSACCHARIDES
*FACTORS B&D& PROPERDIN BIND THE PATHOGEN’S CELL WALL *COMPLEX FORMED - >  IOIN COMMON PATHWAY
COMMON PATHWAY
*C3 IS CLEAVED INTO C3a & C3b
*MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX (MAC) IS FORMED
*HOLE IS PUNCHEDTHRU TARGET CELL
-C3 a-
-STIMULATES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
-C3b-
*OPSONIZATION OF TARGET CELL &
*BINDS TARGET CELL
BINDS TARGET CELL
-STARTS ENZYMATIC CASCADE OF C’ ACTIVATION CLEAVES C5 INTO C5a & C5b
C5a
HELPS WITH STIMULATING INFLAMMATION
-C5b
is involved in enzymatic cascade -- >
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