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Information from the cerebellum leaves via what?
Superior cerebellar peduncle
In what portion of the internal capsule are you if you can see the caudate nucleus?
Anterior limb
What type of memory is lost in a hippocampal lesion?
Long-term memory
In what region of the brain stem does the corticospinal tract cross over?
Medullary decussation
From what gyrus of the brain does the corticospinal tract originate?
Precentral gyrus
What type of fibers are carried in the ventral rami?
Both sensory and motor (from the spinal nerve on both sensory and motor fibers)
What are the hallmark signs of an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion?
1. Hyperreflexia 2. Spastic paralysis 3. Positive Babinski sign
What tract carriers fibers for voluntary refined movements of the distal extremities?
Corticospinal tract
What is the name of the tract in which the dorsal columns from the lower extremities run?
Fasciculus gracilis (It is medial of the two tracts on a cross-section of the spinal cord; the lateral tract is the fasciculus cuneatus.) Remember: Lower extremities dancing-graceful-gracilis.
What is the function of the superior colliculi?
Cell bodies that are to be relayed to the thalamus for sight are found there. (Sight and superior start with S.)
In order for sensory information from the dorsal columns and the spinothalamic tract to get to the cerebral cortex, they must use what thalamic relay nucleus?
Ventroposterolateral (VPL)
In which region of the spinal cord does the spinothalamic tract cross over?
Ventral white commissure (VWC)
Sensory information from the spinothalamic tract sends its information to what region of the cerebral cortex?
Postcentral gyrus
In which region of the brain stem do the dorsal columns cross over?
Lower medulla (synapse on nucleus gracilis or cuneatus)
What tract carries conscious proprioception,fine touch, two-point discrimination, and vibratory sense?
Dorsal column tract (all senses except pain and temperature)
What tract of the spinal cord carries dorsal column information from the upper extremities?
Fasciculus cuneatus
If the right side of the corticobulbar tract to the muscles of facial expression were damaged, where would the deficit be seen?
In the contralateral lower face (left)
If the corticobulbar tract for CN V and CN XII were cut on the right side, where would the lesion be?
There would be no deficit, because the corticobulbar tract receives bilateral input.
What type of fibers are carried in the ventral root?
Motor only
What peduncle(s) carry information into the cerebellum?
Inferior and middle cerebellar peduncles
Cell bodies of what fibers are found in the trigeminal ganglion?
Touch, pain, and temperature
When the head moves, what causes the eyes to move in the opposite direction?
Vestibular system
Unconscious proprioception, body sense, and motor execution are functions of what part of the cerebellum?
Vermis and intermediate lobe
What three structures contain perilymph?
1. Scala tympani 2. Scala vestibuli 3. Semicircular canals
The gravity receptors for changes in the position of the head are located in what part of the inner ear?
Saccule and utricle
What cells are for black and white vision (night vision)?
Rods
What is the fluid of the posterior compartment of the eye?
Vitreous humor
What type of fluid in the inner ear has the consistency of intracellular fluid (ICF)?
Endolymph (high levels of K+)
Name three lesions that can cause left homonymous hemianopsia?
1. Lesion of the right optic tract 2. Lesion of the lateral geniculate body (LGB) 3. Lesion of the optic radiation
What lesion produces a tremor upon movement?
A cerebellar lesion
What part of the inner ear is sensitive to angular acceleration and deceleration?
Semicircular canals
What is the normal volume of CSF?
Approximately 140 ml
What muscle of the eye is under parasympathetic control?
Sphincter pupillae (part of iris)
What cranial nerve receives sensory information from the cornea?
CN VI (ophthalmic division)
What artery supplies blood to the trunk and the lower extremities on a homunculus map of the cerebral cortex?
Anterior cerebral artery
What structures of the inner ear contain endolymph?
1. Scala media 2. Semicircular ducts 3. Saccule Utricle
With what type of lesions do you see tremors at rest?
Lesions of the basal ganglia
What muscle of the eye is under sympathetic control?
Dilator pupillae (part of the iris)
Where is the lesion if the patient presents with a right nasal hemianopsia?
Right internal carotid artery compression on the optic chiasm
What part of the inner ear functions in head movement?
Semicircular ducts
What part of the internal capsule are you in if you see the thalamus?
Posterior limb of the internal capsule
What region of the basal ganglia is affected in Parkinson's disease?
Substantia nigra (degeneration)
Hemorrhagic destruction of the contralateral subthalamic nuclei results in what disorder?
Herniballismus (wild flailing movements)
Slow writhing movements (athetosis) are caused by what?
Hypermyelinization of the corpus striatum and the thalamus (seen in cerebral palsy)
Atrophy of the striatum of the basal ganglia results in what?
Chorea (involuntary quick movements)
What tracts are found in the genu of the internal capsule?
Corticobulbar tracts
What tracts are found in the posterior limb of the IC?
Corticospinal Spinothalamic Dorsal column Thalamocortical
What tracts are found in the anterior limb of the IC?
Thalamocortical tracts
If warm water is placed in the right ear, what does the nystagmus look like?
Slow drift to the left and fast drift to the right (COWS = Cold Opposite & Warm Same)
What lesion causes a bitemporal hemianopsia?
Optic chiasm lesion
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