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i. Stratum corneum ii. Stratum Granulosum iii. Stratum Spinosum v. Stratum Basale iv. Epidermal ridges
1)Papillary Layer 2)Reticular Layer 3)Dermal papillae 4)Adipose connective tissue 5)Hair Shaft 6)Hair Root 7)Hair Follicle 8)Hair Papilla 9)Arrector pili muscle 10)Sebaceous gland 11)Merocrine sweat gland 12)Sweat duct 13)Sweat pore 14)Blood vessels 15)Sensory receptors
i. Diaphysis ii. Proximal epiphysis iii. Distal epiphysis iv. Metaphysis v. Medullary cavity vi. Endosteum – covers the inner surface of the bone vii. Periosteum – covers the outer surface of the bone viii.Compact bone ix. Spongy bone A. Trabeculae – plates that make up lattice of spongy bone
i. Osteon - the basic functional and structural unit of mature compact bone. Osteons run parallel to the diaphysis of the long bone. ii. Central canal – blood vessels & nerves run within iii. Concentric lamellae – “rings” iv. Osteocytes – mature bone cells v. Canaliculi – “stringy”; looks like plant roots vi. Lacunae – house osteocytes vii. Artery viii.Vein ix. Nerve

1. Coronal suture 2. Lambdoid suture
3. Sagittal suture 4. Squamous suture 5. Sutural bones(Wormian bones):these are small islands of bone that fill gaps in sutures; not always present.

i. Frontal bone
A. Supraorbital margin B. Supraorbital foramen (notch) C. Orbital part D. Frontal sinuses

ii. Parietal bones
iii. Temporal bones
A. Internal acoustic meatus B. Mastoid process C. Styloid process D. Zygomatic process
E. Mandibular fossa
F. External acoustic meatus

iv. Occipital bone
A. Foramen magnum B. Occipital condyles C. External and internal occipital crest D. External and internal occipital protuberance E. inferior nuchal line F. superior nuchal line
v. Sphenoid bone A. Body B. Greater wing C. Lesser wing D. Sella turcica (a) Hypophyseal fossa (shallow depression in middle of sella turcica) E. Optic canal F. Foramen rotundum G. Foramen ovale H. Foramen spinosum I. Pterygoid canal J.Pterygoid process (K) Lateral pterygoid plate (L) Medial pterygoid plate
vi. Ethmoid bone A. Crista galli (Sail of Christ) B. Cribiform plate C. Superior and D. middle nasal conchae E. Perpendicular plate (boney nasal septum)
Cranial fossae I. Anterior II. middle and III. posterior cranial fossae
Bones of the Face i. Zygomatic bone 1. Temporal process (articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch) ii. Lacrimal bones iii. Nasal bones iv. Vomer v. Inferior nasal conchae vi. Palatine bones 2. Palatine foramina vii. Maxillae 3. infraorbital foramen viii. Mandible 4. Body 5. Ramus 6. Angle of the mandible 7. Mental protuberance 8. Condylar process 9. Head of the mandible 10. Coronoid process 11. Mandibular notch
7. Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae
a. Base
b. Apex
c. Superior articular processes
1. Superior articular facet
d. Promontory
e. Posterior sacral foramina
f. Anterior sacral foramina
g. Median sacral crest
h. Auricular (Aur-, ear + -cul, little) surface - for attachment to Hip bones (= Os coxae)
i. Sacral canal -total of all the Vertebral foramina of the Sacrum
j. Sacral hiatus – terminus of sacral canal
k. Sacral cornu (Corn-, horn)
8. Coccyx – “Tailbone” is 4 fused vertebrae.
a. Clavicle (clav-, key + -cle, little) or Collar Bone
i. Sternal end - this is the thick, medial end; attaches to the manubrium of the sternum
ii. Acromial end - this is the flattened end; attaches to the acromion of the scapula
iii. Conoid tubercle - rounded lump found near the lateral end; faces posteriorly and
inferiorly (therefore this feature can be used to orient the bone); for attachment of a
ligament that attaches on the first rib.
iv. Costal tuberosity – inferiorly located at sternal end
1. Divisions of the Vertebral Column a. Cervical (Cerv-, neck) Region - 7 vertebrae (C1 – C7) b. Thoracic (Thorac-, chest) Region - 12 vertebrae (T1 – T12) c. Lumbar (Lumb-, loin; side) Region - 5 vertebrae (L1 – L5) d. Sacral (Sacr-, holy) Region - 5 vertebrae fuse into a Sacrum for attachment to hip bones (= Os Coxae) e. Coccygeal (Coccyg-, tail) Region - 4 vertebrae fuse into a Coccyx
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