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51. Which of the following statements describes one of the sources of information that helps us locate the direction from which a sound is coming?   A)   Information about sound localization is registered directly on the basilar membrane of the ear. B)   Information from each separate cone of confusion is registered directly in the appropriate portion of the auditory cortex. C)   The sound forms a “figure,” which can be heard against the “ground” of the background noises. D)   The sound typically reaches the two ears at different times. E)   The sounds are analyzed by the hair cells of the utricle.
51. D = the sound typically reaches the two ears at different times.
61. A researcher needs an equal number of participants from each of several age-groups to test for developmental differences.  Which of the following sampling procedures would be best to use if results are to be generalizable?   A)   Simple random sampling B)   Stratified random sampling C)   Nonrandom sampling D)   Simple convenience sampling E)   Convenience sampling with quotas
61. B = Stratified random sampling
62. Bill obtained a raw score of 30 on the midterm examination.  If the mean was 25 and the standard deviation was 5, Bill’s T score would be   A)   25 B)   30 C)   50 D)   60 E)   65
62. D = 60
90.  Which of the following is an essential feature of a “distributed system,” such as parallel distributed processing (PDP)?   A)   Every major concept is stored in the brain in its own specific location. B)   New concepts are learned via connection weights that cause a pattern of activation. C)   Activation spreads from main concepts to associated concepts in concentric rings. D)   New learning occurs best when the stimuli that are available at recall closely match the stimuli that were available at acquisition. E)   The intention to learn increases activation and causes a stronger memory trace that facilitates recall.
90. B = New concepts are learned via connection weights that cause a pattern of activation.
What are demand characteristics of a study?
Things that the participants may be able to detect about the hypothesis of the study that may influence their behavior.  For example, if participants know a medication is supposed to help them they may try harder on tests.
What is a quasi-experimental design?
Procedures that resemble the characteristics of true experiments – for example, an intervention or a treatment is used and a comparison is provided – but procedures lack the degree of control found in true experiments.  A quasi-experimental design lacks one or more of the following: experimental control, random assignment to condition, lack of a representative control or comparison group, and manipulation of an independent variable.
What is a random groups design?
The most common type of independent groups design in which subjects are randomly assigned to each group such that groups are considered comparable at the start of the experiment.
119. According to Erik Erikson’s theory, the process of development occurs   A)   in three cognitive stages that are completed by five years of age B)   throughout life in a series of psychosocial stages C)   as a consequence of biological maturation D)   through increasing gains in moral reasoning E)   in response to exposure to environmental stimuli
119. B = throughout life in a series of psychosocial stages
123. Receptors in the vomeronasal organ control behavioral responses to   A)   hormones B)   pheromones C)   toxic odors D)   bitter tastes E)   loud sounds
123. B = Pheromones
124. Which of the following personality tests is derived mainly from the personality theory developed by Carl Jung?   A)   Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) B)   Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) C)   Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 (MMPI-2) D)   Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) E)   Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
124. A = Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
What is Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)?  
It is a connectionist model of memory that is an alternative to the information-processing model of memory, where knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network, and all operating parallel.
202. In Gordon Allport’s taxonomy of traits, some individuals develop a trait that is experienced as a “ruling passion” and dominates most aspects of that individual’s behavior.  In Allport’s taxonomy, such a trait is known as   A)   cardinal B)   common C)   constitutional D)   secondary E)   unique    
202. A = cardinal
205. The transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory is disrupted by bilateral destruction of which part of the brain?   A)   Hippocampus B)   Thalamus C)   Corpus callosum D)   Medulla E)   Reticular formation    
205. A = Hippocampus
Classic Conditioning was pioneered by…  
...Ivan Pavlov
What is an Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)?
The UCS is the not-so-neutral stimulus that (without conditioning) elicits some kind of response.  In Pavlov’s dog experiments the stimulus is the food.  In The Office the UCS is the mint.
What is a Conditioned Stimulus (CS)?
The CS is the neutral stimulus (elicits no response) that is paired w/the Unconditioned Stimulus thereby gaining the same response as the US.  In Classical Conditioning a light is paired with the food.  In The Office the CS is the sound of the computer rebooting.
What is the Unconditioned Response (UCR)?
The UCR is the naturally occurring response to the Unconditioned Stimulus, like salivating.
What is the Conditioned Response (CR)?
The CR is the response that the Conditioned Response elicits after conditioning.  This is the same response as the Unconditioned Response that before was only elicited by the Unconditioned Stimulus.
What is Operant or Instrumental Conditioning?
Pioneered by B.F. Skinner this type of learning is formed using reinforcement strategies.
What is B.F. Skinners’ infamous experiment?
Using Skinner Boxes he trained or conditioned rats to do an unnatural behavior - pressing the level of the Skinner box by using reinforcement of such behavior.
What is “shaping” a.k.a. “differential reinforcement of successive approximations”?    
Shaping is the process that Skinner used in his rat Skinner box experiments where the experimenter rewarded the rats (w/food pellets) 1st for even being near the lever, or touching the lever, and then for behaviors that got them closer and closer to pressing the bar.  Once the rats pressed the bar they were only rewarded for that behavior.
What is Primary Reinforcement?    
A natural reinforcement; something that is reinforcing on its own w/o the requirement of learning.  Examples: food, water - needs.
What is Secondary Reinforcement?    
A learned reinforcement; reinforcements often learned through society or cultural values.  Examples: money, power, prestige, awards, token economy (big house, nice car, nice clothes, vacations) - wants.
1. What is Positive Reinforcement? 2. What is Negative Reinforcement?    
1. Being given something good (which is rewarding).

2. Taking away something bad (which is rewarding).
What is a Continuous Reinforcement Schedule?  
Every correct response is reinforced.  This is the quickest but most fragile, as soon as the rewards stop coming the animal stops performing.
What is a Partial Reinforcement Schedule?  
Not all correct responses are reinforced.  It may require a longer learning time but once learned, these behaviors are more resistant to extinction.  There are 4 types of Partial Reinforcement Schedules.
What are the 4 types of Partial Reinforcement Schedules?  
  1. Fixed Ratio
  2. Variable Ratio
  3. Fixed Interval
  4. Variable Interval
What is a Fixed Ratio Schedule?    
Given a ratio (ex. 6:1) a reward is delivered after a consistent number of correct responses, so for every 6 correct responses 1 reward is given.  Vulnerable to extinction.
What is a Variable Ratio Schedule?  
Rewards are delivered after a varying or different number of correct responses.  This takes the longest to learn but is the least likely to become extinct.  Ex. Gambling
What is the Fixed Interval Schedule?    
When rewards are given over a fixed interval of time (once every other week) regardless of the animal’s or person’s behavior.  Ex. Paychecks coming every two weeks regardless of what an employee does.  This is the least effective for motivating behavior.
What is the Variable Interval Schedule?    
When rewards are given after differing time periods and since the time varies one never knows when a reward may be right around the corner.  It is the 2nd most effective in maintaining behavior.
What are phonemes?  What are phonics?  
  • Discrete sounds that make up words but carry no meaning such as, ee, p, or sh.  Infants first make these sounds when learning language.
  • Phonics is learning to read by sounding out the phonemes.
What are morphemes?    
Morphemes are words or parts of words, made up of phonemes, but that contain meaning.
What is syntax?
The arrangement of words into sentences as prescribed by a particular language.
What is grammar?
Grammar is the overall rules of the interrelationship between morphemes and syntax that make up a certain language.
What are the 3 stages of memory?
Sensory, Short-term (STM), and Long-term (LTM)
What are the characteristics of sensory memory and what does the concept of sensory memory explain?  
1)   It lasts only for seconds 2)   Forms the connection between perception and memory 3)   The concept of sensory memory explains why, if you wiggle a pen back and forth, you see trails or a ghost pen in all positions; the sensory memory information remains briefly in your awareness, and because the pen moves quickly, the information all runs together.
What is echoic memory?
The sensory memory for auditory sensations.
What are the characteristics of Short-term Memory?  
1)   Temporary, lasts for seconds or minutes 2)   7 items, + or – 2 3)   Chunking increases the capacity of STM 4)   Susceptible to interference
What are Primary and Secondary Rehearsal?  
Rehearsal and Primary (maintenance) Rehearsal are key to keeping items in the STM and to transferring items to the long-term memory. Secondary (elaborative) Rehearsal involves organizing and understanding material in order to transfer it to LTM.
What is Retroactive Interference?  
When previously learned information is lost because it is mixed up with new and somewhat similar information. I learned math for the GRE, then I started my MATH 108 class, now when I’m trying to take a GRE quiz the MATH 108 information I am learning is keeping me from recalling the GRE math I learned this summer.
What is Proactive Interference?  
Proactive interference occurs when current information is lost because it is mixed up with previously learned, similar information.  Not being able to remember someone’s new phone number because their old one comes to mind.
What are the (5) characteristics of Long-term Memory?  
    1. Capable of permanent retention
    2. Most items are learned semantically, for/through knowing the meaning
    3. LTM retention is measured by recognition, recall, and savings
    4. Subject to the encoding specificity principle
    5. Is not subject to primacy and recency effects, but is subject to the same interference as STM.
    LTM retention is measured by recognition, recall, and savings; define each term:  
    Recognition: recognizing things learned in the past (multiple choice test) Recall: when you must generate information or answers on your own Cued: fill-in-the-blank Free: Remembering w/no cue (being asked to name as many words from a list you were given to memorize as you can) Savings: measures how much information about a subject remains in LTM by measuring how long it takes to learn something the second time around.
    What is Episodic Memory?    
    Episodic memory consists of details, events, and discrete knowledge
    What is Semantic Memory?    
    Semantic memory consists of general knowledge of the world
    What did Hermann Ebbinghaus contribute to study of memory?  
    1. He was the first to study memory systematically
    2. He presented subjects with lists of nonsense syllables to study STM
    3. He proposed a forgetting curve
    What is serial learning?  What is it subject to?  
    List-learning, recalling a list of things in a certain order It is subject to primacy and recency effects (when the first few and last few items are the easiest to remember)
      What is Paired-associate learning?    
    When we pair two things together in order to remember them.  This is how we learn foreign languages, by pairing the English word with the Spanish word.
    What is Clustering?
    Clustering is the brain’s tendency to group together similar items in memory whether they are learned together or not, like in conceptual or semantic hierarchies.
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