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heterotrophs
depended upon outside sources for food
The primitive seas contain ______ and
_____ compounds such as  salts, methane and hydrogen
simple inorganic and organic
Stanley Miller
set out to demonstrate that the application of UV, heat or combo of these to a mixture of methane, hydrogen, ammonia and water could result in the formation of complex organic compunds
coacertive droplets
a cluster of collodial molecules surrounded by a shell of water and they tend to absorb and incorporate substances from the surrounding environment
The 1st primitive cells probably possesed
nucleic acid polymers
autotrophic nutrition
anaerobic respiratory processes to convert nutrients into energy; photosynthetic pathways
autotrophic anaerobics
chemosynthetic bacteria
autotrophic aerobes
green plants & photoplankton
heterotrophic anaerobes
yeasts
heterotrophic aerobes
amoebas, earthworms, humans
Inorganic compounds
compunds that dont contain the element carbon, like salt and HCl
Organic Compunds
living systems that contain carbon
protoplasm
the substance of life that is composed of C, H, O, N, S, P
molecule
unit of a compound
Cell Theory
-all living things are composed of cells
-the cell is the basic functional unit of life
-cells arise only from pre-existing cells
-cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA  
Prokaryotes
-bacteria
-cell wall present in all(composed of peptidoglycans)
-no nucleus
-ribosome subunits(30S and 50S)
-no membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotes
-protists, fungi, plants, animals
-cell wall present in fungi & plants only
-nucleus
-ribosomes(40S and 60S)
-membrane-bound organelles
nucleus
controls activities of the cell
ribosome
sites of protein production and synthesized by the nucleolus and found in the cytoplasm
endoplasmic reticulum
involved in transport of materials throughout the cell
Golgi apparatus
receives vesicles and thier contents ftom the smooth ER, modifies, and repackages them
mitochondria
sites of aerobic respiration and suppliers of energy
cytoplasm
most of the cells metabolic activity occur in the cytoplasm
vacuole
involved in the transport and storage of materials that are ingested, secreted, processed or digested by the cell
meiosis
-2N->N
-occurs in sex cells only
-Homologous chromosomes
-crossing over can occur
fertilization
union of cells to form a zygote
centrioles
involved in spindle organization
lysosome
membrane bound vesicles that break down material by the cell
passive diffusion
-down gradient
-no carrier
-no energy required
facilitated diffusion
-down gradient
-carrier
-no energy required
active transport
-against gradient
-carrier
-energy required
osmosis
lower to higher concentration
enzymes
-lower activatio energy of a reaction
-increase rate of the reaction
-not changed or consumes in the course of the reaction
-dont affect the overall ΔG of the reaction
Mitosis
*Interphase- DNA is uncoiled and called chromatin
*Prophase-chromosomes condense; spindles form
*Metaphase-chromosomes align
*Anaphase-sister chromatids seperate
*Telophase-new nuclear membranes from 2N->2N/ no crossing over
Gonads
male->testes->sperm female->ovaries->oocytes(eggs)
pathway of sperm
Seminiferous tubules
Epididymus
Vas Deferens
Ejaculatory Duct
(Nothing)

Urethra
Penis
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