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Follicular phase
follicles mature
menses
menstrual flow from adroping progesterone and estrogen levels which causes the endometrium slough off
sporophyte vs. gametophyte
diploid vs. hapliod
alleles
when a gene exists in more than one form
dominant vs. recessive
expressed vs. silent
Testcross
Ax × aa=
Aa × aa or
AA × aa  
Punnett Square
Codominance
occurs when multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant
Incomplete dominance
if the phenotype of the heterozygote is an intermediate of the phenotypes of the homozygotes
autosomes
chromosomes that exist as a pair of homologues
replicaiton
DNA-> DNA
5'->3'
transcription
DNA->RNA
5'-3'
translation
RNA->protein
5'-3'
rRNA is synthesized in the
nucleolus
Binary fussion
bacteria cells reproduce this way, asexual
RNA polymerase binds to promoter
structural genes transcribed
repressor binds to operator
structural genes NOT transcribed
Inducer binds to repressor
no binding to operator and structural genes transcribed
Southern blots
allows for the detection of a specific DNA sequence in a specific DNA sample
Polymerase chain reaction
is used for amplification of genes; dentaturation, primer annealing, and primer extenstion
morula
solid ball of embryonic cells
Blastulation
begins when the morula develops a fluid-fiilled cavity called the blastocoel
ectoderm
integument, the lens of the eye, the retina and the  nervous system
endoderm
epithelial linings of the digestive and respiratory tracts and parts of the lover
mesoderm
muscoskeletal system, circulatory, excretory, gonads, etc
chorion
it lines the inside of the shell and permits gas exchange
allantois
sac-like structure involved in resporation and excretion and contains numerous blood vessels to transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, salt and nitrogeneous wasts
amnion
this membrane encloses the amniotic fluid, which provides and aqueous environment which protects developing embryo from shock
yolk
encloses the yolk
episomes
plasmid that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome
protozoans
movement of gases and nutrients is accomplished by simple diffusion within the cell
cnidarians
all cells are in direct contact with either the internal or external environments so there is no need for specialized circulatory system
arthropods
open circulatory systems in which blood is in direct contact with the body tissues, blood flows through a dorsal vessel and into spaces called sinuses where exchange occurs
annelids
earthworm uses a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to blood vessels
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