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Culture
1. The set of values, beliefs, and behaviors that governs or determines a common way of living formed by a group of people and passed on from one generation to the next.
Naturalism
1. In art, representations that imitate the reality in appearance of natural objects.
Paleolithic Culture
1. Women played a central role in Paleolithic culture, most likely they had considerable religion and spiritual influence, and their preponderance in the imagery of the era suggests that Paleolithic culture may have been matrilineal(in which descent is determined through the female line) and matrilocal (in which residence is in the female’s tribe or household).  Such traditions exist in many primal societies today.
Megaliths
Literally, “big stones”; large, usually rough, stones used in a monument or structure.
Mesopotamia
1. “land between the rivers” is a name for the Tigris-Euphrates region in the eastern Mediterranean, largely corresponding to Iraq, as well as northeastern Syria. Widely considered as the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires.
Ziggurat
1. A pyramidal temple structure consisting of successive platforms with outside staircases and a shrine at the top.
Gilgamesh
1. Consists of some 2900 lines written in Akkadian cuneiform script on eleven clay tablets, none of them completely whole.  It was composed sometime before Ashurbanipal’s reign, possibly as early as 1200 BCE, by Sinleqqiunninni, a scholar-priest of Uruk.
Hebrews
1. The Hebrew were a people forced out of their homeland in the Mesopotamian basin in about 2000 BCE. According to their tradition, it was in the delta of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that God created Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.
The Ark of the Covenant
1. The Hebrews carried the Ten Commandments in a sacred chest called the Ark of the Covenant, which was lit by seven-branched candelabras known as menorahs.
Polytheistic
The religion of Ancient Egypt consisting of many Gods and goddesses who were associated with natural forces and realms. 
Hieroglyphs
A sign used in hieroglyphic writing, a writing system consisting mainly of pictorial characters.
Confucius
Many considered China’s greatest philosopher and teacher, Kong Fu Zi, known in the West as Confucius.  Confucius was born to aristocratic parents in the province of Shandong in 551 BCE.  By his early twenties had begun to teach a way of life, Confucianism, based on self-discipline and proper relations among people.
Acropolis
1. Literally, “top of the city”; the natural citadel of a Greek city that served as a fortification of religious center.
Mycenaean Culture
1. the ancient city of Mycenae which gave it name to the larger Mycenaean Culture, was discovered by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann in the late nineteenth century.  Mycenaean’s lived and died by the sword.  Mycenaean Culture was the forerunner if the ancient Greek culture and was essentially feudal in nature, that is, a system political organization together by ties of allegiance between a lord and those who relied on him for protection.
Homer
was most likely bard, a singer of songs about the deeds of heroes and the ways of the gods.  His stories were part of a long-standing oral tradition that dated back to the time of the Trojan War, which we believe occurred sometime between 1800 and 1300 BCE. Out of the oral materials he inherited, Homer composed two great epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Zeus
(Jupiter) King of the gods, usually bearded, and associated with the eagle and thunderbolt.
Athena
1. Minerva) Goddess of war, but also, through her association with Athens, of civilization; the daughter of Zeus, born from his head; often helmeted, shield and spear in hand, the owl(wisdom) and the olive tree (peace) are sacred to her.
Doric order
The oldest and the simplest of the Greek architectural orders, characterized by a heavy column that stands directly on a temple’s stylobate
Ionic order
1. One of the Greek architectural orders, characterized by columns either of caryatids or with scrolled capitals.
Corinthian order
1. The most elaborate of the Greek architectural orders, distinguished by a capital decorated with acanthus leaves.
Kouros
A freestanding sculpture of a nude male youth. The male body was celebrated in a widespread genre of sculpture known as Kouros meaning “young man”. This celebration of the body was uniquely Greek.
Kore
1. A freestanding sculpture of a standing maiden. Just as the Kouros statue seems related to Apollo, the Kore statue appears to have a votive offering to Athena and was apparently a gift of the goddess. Male citizens dedicated Korai to her as a gesture of both piety and evident pleasure.
Parthenon
1. completed in 432 BCE after 15 years of construction. As Pericles had argued, it was built to give thanks to Athena for salvation of Athens and Greece in the Persian Wars, but it was also a tangible sign of the power and might of the Athenian state, designed to impress all who visited the city. Built by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates. 
The Golden Rectangle
1. The Greeks, with their great affinity for geometry, recognized that a rectangle based on these proportions could readily be divided and subdivided into identically proportioned sections, or Golden Rectangles.
Frieze
1. Runs across the top of the outer wall of the cella.  The frieze has been interpreted as a depiction of the Panathenaic procession, an annual civic festival honoring Athena, but a recent interpretation suggests a mythological reading.
Sophists
1. Literally, “wise man;” an ancient Greek teacher of philosopher who was committed to humanism and primarily concerned with understanding the nature of human “knowing” itself. Sophists no longer asked “What do we Know?, but instead, “How do we know what we think we know?” and crucially, “How can we trust what we think we know?”
Socrates
1. A great Athenian philosopher born in 469 BCE, a decade after the Greek defeat of the Persians. His death in 399 BCE arguably marked the end of Athens’ Golden Age. Socrates death was not a natural one. His execution was ordered by a polis in turmoil after its defeat by the Spartans in 404 BCE. Socrates was condemned to death by drinking poisonous hemlock. 
Plato
1. Plato was Socrates greatest student, we know Socrates thinking only through the writings of Plato.  Plato’s philosophy is a brand of idealism-it seeks the eternal perfection of pure ideas, untainted by material reality. He believes there is an invisible world of eternal Forms, of Ideas, beyond everyday experience and that the psyche, trapped in the material world and the physical body, can only catch glimpses of this higher order.
Comedy
1. Closely related to the satyr-plays was comedy, an amusing or lighthearted play design to make its audience laugh. The word itself was derived from the kumos, a phallic dance, and nothing is sacred to comedy. It freely slandered, buffooned, and ridiculed politicians, generals, public figures, and especially the gods.
Tragedy
1. It was tragedy that the Greek playwrights truly excelled. As with comedy, the basis for tragedy is conflict, but the tensions at work in tragedy-murder and revenge, crime and retribution, pride and humility, courage and cowardice- have far more serious consequences.
Protagonist
leading character, which brings the character into conflict with the community, the gods.
Antagonist
1. represents the opposing will; an adversary or opponent.
Epidaurus
1. The best preserved for all Greek theaters. This theater is world renowned for it democratic design – not only is every viewer equally well situated, but the acoustics of the space are unparalleled. A person sitting in the very top row can hear a pin drop on the orchestra floor.
Hellenistic Age
1. A period of Greek history that begins with the rise to power of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) and extends to the Roman defeat of Cleopatra in Egypt in 30 BCE.
Alexander the Great
1. aroused the emotions and captured the imagination of not just a theatrical audience, but an entire people- perhaps even the entire Western World- and created a legacy that established Hellenic Greece as the model against which all cultures in the West had to measure themselves.
Imperial Rome
1. The Latin term Imperium Romanum (Roman Empire, probably the best known Latin expression for the word imperium denotes the sphere of human life subdued to military commander – imperator, under Roman rule.  Roman  expansion began in the days of the Republic; but reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan. At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approx 6,500,000km of the land surface.  Because of the empire’s vast extent and long endurance, Roman influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and government of nations around the world lasts to this day.
Colosseum
1. Vespasian built the Colosseum across from Nero’a Golden house. He named it after the Colossus, a 120-foot high statue of Nero as sun god that stood in front of it.  A giant oval, 615 feet long, 510 feet wide, and 150 feet high, audiences estimated at 50,000 entered and exited through its 76 vaulted arcades in a matter of a few minutes.
Arches (Round, Barrel Vault, Groin Vault)
1. the Romans understood that much wider spans than the Etruscans had a bridged could be achieved with the round arch that the post-and-lintel construction.  When the round arch is extended it forms a barrel vault.  When two barrel vaults meet one another at a right angle, they form a groin vault.
Column of Trajan
1. perhaps the most complete artistic statement of Rome’s militaristic character, consist of a spiral of 150 separate scenes from his military campaign in Dacia, across the Danube River in what is now Hungary and Romania.
The Pantheon
Hadrian’s Pantheon ranks with the forum of Trajan as one of the most ambitious building projects undertaken by the Good Emperors.  The Pantheon is a temple to all the gods, sculptures representing all the Roman gods were set in recesses around its interior.
Beowulf
1. The oldest English epic poem, in the poem a young hero, Beowulf, comes from afar to rid a community of monsters, headed by the horrific Grendel, who have been ravaging it.  Beowulf demonstrates his fierce courage and true loyalty to his vassals by taking the dragon on, but it kills him.  The lesson drawn from his fate is a simple one: “So every man must yield/the leasehold of his days.”
Pagan
1. A Christian adaptation of the gentile of Judaism, and as such has an inherent Abrahamic bias, and pejorative connotations among Western monotheists, comparable to heathen, and infidel also known as Kafir and mushrik in islam.  Pagan denotes all non-Abrahamic religions, that is to say it denotes all religions other than Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Monastic Music
Hildegard is responsible for more surviving compositions than any other musician, male or female, who worked before the early fourteenth century.  Her Ordo virtutum is a composition of texts and 82 melodies that dramatizes the conflict between good and evil.  In it the devil, who never sings but shouts all his lines, confronts personification of each of the 16 Virtues.
Tapestry
A form if textile Art, woven on a vertical loom.  It is composed of two sets of interlaced threads, those running parallel to the length (called the wrap) and those parallel to the width(called the weft); the wrap threads are set up under tension on a loom, and the weft thread is passed back and forth across part or all of the wraps.  Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the wrap threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the wrap and the weft threads may be visible.
Choral Music
1. Benedictine monks at Cluny introduced choral music onto the liturgy sometime in the first half of the tenth century. Odo of Cluny, the monstery’s second abbot, was an important musical theorist.  He is often credited with developing one of the first effective systems of musical notation, used to teach choral music to other monasteries on the Cluniac fold.  The method used the letters A through G to name the seven notes of the Western scale. Choral music introduces the possibility of polophony two or more lines of melody as opposed to the monophonic quality of Gregorian chant.  The earliest form of this new polyphonic music was called organum. It consists of voices singing note-to-note in parallel.
The Crusades
1. were a series of religiously-sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued into the 15th century. The Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims, although campaigns were also waged against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the popes. Crusaders took vows and were granted penance for past sins, often called an indulgence.
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