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WHAT ARE NUCLEIC ACIDS?
NUCLEIC ACIDS ARE MACROMOLECULES COMPOSED OF CHAINS MONOMERIC NUCLEOTIDES.
WHERE ARE NUCLEIC ACIDS FOUND?
NUCLEIC ACIDS ARE FOUND IN THE NUCLEI OF CELLS.
WHAT IS DNA?
DNA IS NUCLEIC ACIDS THAT CONTAIN THE GENERIC INSTRUCTIONS USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION OF ALL LIVING ORGANISMS.
WHAT IS mRNA?
(MESSENGER RIBONUCLEIC ACID)
mRNA IS A MOLECULE OF RNA ENCODING A CHEMICAL "BLUEPRINT" FOR A PROTEIN PRODUCTION; CARRIES CODING INFORMATION TO THE SITES OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.
WHAT IS tRNA?
(TRANSFER RNA)
tRNA IS A SMALL RNA MOLECULE THAT TRANSFERS A SPECIFIC ACTIVE AMINO ACID TO A GROWING POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN AT THE RIBOSOMAL SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DURING TRANSLATION.
DESCRIBE THE INITIAL FORMATION OF AN AMINO ACID CHAIN (THE POLYPEPTIDE) AS A RESULT OF TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION.
AMINO ACIDS LINK TOGETHER AT THE C-TERMINUS THROUGH DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS FORMING A POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN. THE AMINO ACID IS DEFINED BY THE CHEMICAL COMPUND AT THE R GROUP.
WHAT IS THE SENSE STRAND?
THE SENSE STRAND IS A SINGLE STRAND OF THE DNA WHICH ITS SEQUENCE IS COPIED DURING THE SYNTHESIS OF DNA. THE TEMPLATE.
WHAT IS THE ANTISENSE STRAND?
THE ANTISENSE STRAND IS THE OPPOSITE STRAND OF DNA THAT PROVIDES THE CODE TO BE COPIED DURING THE SYNTHESIS OF DNA.
THE CODING STRAND.
WHAT IS A CODON?
A CODON IS A SEQUENCE OF THREE ADJACENT NUCLEOTIDES CONSTITUDING THE GENETIC CODE THAT SPECIFIES THE INSERTION OF AN AMINO ACID IN A SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL POSITION IN A POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN DURING THE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN.
WHAT IS AN ANTICODON?
AN ANTICODON IS A SEQUENCE OF THREE ADJACENT NUCLEOTIDES IN tRNA DESIGNATING A SPECIFIC AMINO ACID THAT BINDS TO A CORRESPONDING CODON IN mRNA DURING PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.
WHAT IS TERMINATION CODON?
TERMINATION CODON IS A THREE-NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE IN mRNA THAT SPECIFIES THE END OF THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS IN A POLYPEPTIDE.
DEFINE A PEPTIDE BOND.
A PEPTIDE BOND IS THE CHEMICAL BOND FORMED BETWEEN THE CARBOXYL GROUPS AND AMINE GROUPS OF NEIGHBORING AMINO ACIDS, CONSTITUTING THE PRIMARY LINKAGE OF ALL PROTEIN STRUCTURES.
WHAT IS THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID?
AN AMINO ACID HAS A CENTRAL CARBON, AN AMINE GROUP (AT THE LEFT OF THE CHAIN), A CARBOXYL GROUP (AT THE LEFT OF THE CHAIN), AND AN R GROUP (CHEMICAL BOND THAT MAKES THE AMINO ACID DIFFERENT).
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE CETWEEN THE N-TERMINUS OR C-TERMINUS?
THE N-TERMINUS IS THE START OF A POLYPEPTIDE OR A PROTEIN TERMINATED BY AN AMINO ACID WITH A FREE AMINE GROUP, WHERE AS THE C-TERMINUS IS THE END OF THE AMINO ACID CHAIN TERMINATED BY A FREE CARBOXYL GROUP.
WHAT ARE THREE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES?
  • ARE SPECIFIC TO THE ENZYMES THAT FIT INTO THE ACTIVE SITE.
  • HAVE A SATURATION LIMIT.
  • CAN BE REGULATED.
HOW IS THE SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF THE PROTEIN FORMED?
THE SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF THE PROTEIN IS FORMED FROM THE TWISTING AND FOLDING OF NEIGHBORING AMINO ACIDS, STABILIZED BY HYDROGEN BONDS.
HOW IS THE TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF THE PROTEIN FORMED?
THE TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF THE PROTEIN IS FORMED BECAUSE OF THE FOLDING BECASUE OF THE FOLDING OF THE SECONDARY STRUCTURE IT CAUSES R GROUPS TO COME CLOSER TO EACHOTHER AND BOND.
WHAT IS THE QUATERNARY STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN?
THE QUATERNARY STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN IS TWO OR MORE TERTIARYY STRUCTURES BONDED TOGETHER.
WHAT IS THE GENERAL CHARACTERIST OF A CELL MEMBRANE?
A CELL MEMBRANE IS THE FLEXIBLE LIPID BILAYER THAT SURROUNDS AND CONTAINS THE CYTOPLASM OF A CELL, IT PROTECTS THE CONTENT OF THE INNER CELL AND REGULATES THE MOVEMENTS OF MOLECULES IN AND OUR OF THE CELL.
EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF EACH ORGANELLES FOUND INSIDE THE CELL.
CYTOSKELETON
SERVES AS A SCAFFOLD THAT HELPS TO DETERMINE A CELL'S SHAPE AND TO ORGANIZE CELLULAR CONTENT.

AIDS MOVEMENT OF ORGANELLES WITHIN THE CELL, OF CHROMOSOMES DURING CELL DIVISION,  AND OF WHOLE CELLS SUCH AS PHAGOCYTES.
MICROFILAMENTS
CONTRACT/CHANGE SHAPE OF THE CELL.
MICROTUBULES
DETERMINE THE SHAPE OF THE CELL.
INTERMIDIATE FILAMENTS
HELP CONNECT ONE CELL TO THE NEXT.
MICROVILII
PROVIDE MECHANICAL SUPPORT FOR CELL EXTENSION.
CENTROSOMES
BUILDS MICROTUBULES IN NONDIVING CELLS.

FORMS THE MITOTIC SPINDLES DURING CELL DIVISION.
CILIA 
MOVE FLUID ALONG A CELL'S STRUCTURE.
FLAGELLA
MOVES AN ENTIRE CELL.
RIBOSOMES
ATTACHED RIBOSOMES SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS DESTINED FOR INSERTION IN THE PLASMA.

FREE RIBOSOMES SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS USED IN THE CYTOSOL.
CYTOSOL
SURROUNDS ORGANELLES.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

NETWORK OF MEMBRANES IN THE FORM OF FLATTENED SCAS OF TUBULES.
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
ROUGH ER SYNTHESIZES GLYCOPROTEINS AND PHOSPOLIPIDS THAT ARE TRANSFERRED  INTO CELLULAR ORGANELLES, INSERTED INTO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE, OR SECRETED DURING EXOCYTOSIS.
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
SMOOTH ER SYNTHESIZES FATTY ACIDS AND STEROIDS, INACTICATES OR DETOXIFIES DRUGS AND OTHER POTENTIALLY HARMFUL SUBSTANCES, CONVERTS GLUCOSE 6-PHOSPHATE TO GLUCOSE, AND STORES AND RELEASES CALCIUM IONS.
GOLGI APPARATUS
MODIFIES, SORTS, PACKAGES, AND TRANSPORTS PROTEINS RECEIVED FRON THE ROUGH ER.
LYSOSOMES
  • DIGEST SUBSTANCES THAT ENTER A CELL VIA ENDOCYTOSIS AND TRANSPORT FINAL PRODUCT OF DIGESTION INTO CYTOSOL.
  • DIGEST WORN-OUT ORGANELLES.
  • DESTROY ENTIRE CELL.
  • DISSOLVES EXTREACELLULAS MATERIALS.
MITOCHONDRIA
GENERATE ATP THROUGHOUT REACTIONS OF AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION.
NUCLEUS
  • CONTROLS CELLULAR STRUCTURE.
  • DIRECTS CELLULAR ACTIVITIES.
  • PRODUCES RIBOSOMAL SUBUNITS IN NUCLEOLI.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CYTOSKELETON AND WHAT ARE THE THREE THINGS THAT COMPRISE THE CYTOSKELETON?
THE CYTOSKELETON MAINTAINS THE SHAPE AND GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF CELLULAR CONTENTS AND IT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CELLULAR MOVEMENT.  IT IS COMPOSED OF MICCROTUBULES, MICROFILAMENTS AND INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS.
WHAT ARE THE THREE WAYS CELLS ARE ANCHORED TOGETHER?
  1. TIGHT JUNCTION
  2. DESMOSOMES
  3. GAP JUNCTION
TIGHT JUNCTION
FORMS A LEAK PROOF SHEET BARRIER.
DESMOSOMES
  • CONTAINS PROTEINS
  • PRONE  TO MECHANIAL STRESS
  • INCLUDES A PLAQUE USED AS A CONNECTION FOR PROTEIN FOUND BETWEEN TWO MEMBRANES (LINKER PROTEIN)
GAP JUNCTION
  • CONNECTS TWO CELLS TOGETHER WITH STRAPLIKE STRUCTURES
  • CREATES A PATH FOR MEANS OF SHARING
  • COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CELSS
TYPES OF PROTEINS FOUND IN THE MEMBRANE AND THEIR SPECIFIC FUNCTION.
ANCHORING (LINKER) PROTEIN
CONNECTS CELLS
RECEPTORS
CELLULAR RECOGNITION
CARRIER PROTEINS
SELECTIVELY CHANGES SHAPE TO MOVE SUBSTANCES FROM ONE SIDE OF THE MEMBRANE TO THE OTHER.
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