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How many rings are there in the concentric ring theory, and in what order are they?
5 rings: inner commercial and office; 2 industrial; 3 transitional with poor housing; 4 working class residential; 5 rich residential
What theory was developed by Ernest Burgess in 1925.
This theory was developed by Homer Hoyt in 1939.
This theory was developed by Harris and Ullman in 1945.
Multiple Nuclei Theory They argued that cities develop a series of specific land use nuclei. A land use nucleus is formed because of accessibility to natural resources, clustering of similar uses, land prices, and the repelling power of land uses.
This theory was developed by Walter Christaller in 1933
The idea of this theory or type of planning is to apply the concepts of the scientific method to city planning. In its pure form, it assumes that a planner has perfect knowledge of all of the factors in a given situation.
rational planning; 1950''s; Herbert Simon
Can rational plnning be used to solve a "wicked problem"?  What is a "wicked problem"?
No it can''t because a "wicked problem" is one that is very dificult, and there is not one root cause and no one alternative could eliminate the problem.
Incremental Planning: When popular, who popular, general idea.
1959, Charles Lindblom, planning has to be piece meal, incremental, opportunistic, and pragmatic.
Mixed Scanning: Who introdused, and general idea
Amitai Etzioni:
two levels: the big picture and the small picture.
Big Picture: fundamental policy-shaping decisions should be based on a more careful rational analysis of alternatives.

Small Picture: Implementation decisions should use an incremental approach.
Advocacy Planning: When developed, by who, general idea
1960, Paul Davidoff, the planner would act as an advocate for special interest groups.
Equity Planning: When, who, where, general idea
1970''s, Norman Krumholz, Cleveland, the planner would work to redistribute power and resources to the poor and dissadvanteged and away from the rich.
Transactive Planning: When, who, general idea.
1973, John Friedmann, that the planner would sit down with many citizens and have a conversation or "mutual learning process" and write the plan from that.
Radical Planning : When, who, general idea, and an example of something close.
1987, John Friedmann, the citizens completely make their own plan;
Some public housing authorities have turned management decisions over to the tenants, who are responsible for proposing change in policy.
Communicative Planning: general idea
The planner uses the rational model to bring the ideas to the stakeholders.  The planner then acts as a facilitator amung the stakeholder discussions, and develops a plan with direction and public involvement.  Widely used today.
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