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Rene Descartes
Sought a rational basis for all knowledge. Thought certain, (true beliefs) ought to support or serve as a foundation for our knowledge claims.
Free yourself from regret and remorse. Monist. All objects are composed of mind and matter. All objects are part of God, the infinite being.
Jean Buridan
Created a hypothetical example of a rational donkey that was caught in equilibrium between two stacks of hay, argued donkey would starve to death.
Argues that all objects have primary and secondary qualities. Things like color and smell are in our minds, not in the objects. We only know a mental representation of the physical thing.
David Hume
Denies the Rationality of Induction & Causality. Denies Science. Most "knowledge" is just custom or habit, not justified by reason.
Alfred Tarski
"Snow is White, if and only if snow is white." Something is true if and only if it exist in the world.
William James
What is true, is whatever is useful to belief.
Charles Saunders Pierce
What is true is whatever science determines at the end of inquiry.
John Dewey
What is true, is relative to humanity.
Georg Hegel
Absolute Idealism. Denies the notion of the noumenal. All reality is the expression of thought or reason.
All objects are material. Thoughts, feelings, and ideas are all motions in the brain (which is physical).
All objects are Monads. Monads are immaterial objects that appear to interact with one another because God has placed them in harmonious relation with each other.
Finite minds & infinite mind. All objects are ideas in the mind of God.
Immanuel Kant
We can only know the Phenomenal world never the Noumenal world.
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