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Social Stratification
Structured inequalities among different groups of people.

The division of people socioeconomically into layers, or strata, meaning that they occupy unequal positions in society. In the larger traditional societies and in industrialized countries today there is stratification in terms of wealth, property, and access to material goods and cultural products.
Caste/ Slavery/ Class
Caste: Born into, no mobility

Slavery: Born into, no mobility, property of others

Class: mobility, status is achieved

~Whereas the first two depend on legal or religiously sanctioned inequalities, class divisions are not "officially" recognized but stem from economic factors affecting people''s material circumstances.
Social Mobility (inter vs. intra)
Intergenerational: movement across the generations, as when the daughter or son from a blue-collar background becomes a professional.

Intragenerational: movement up or down the social scale within an individual''s working life.
Income vs Wealth
Income: Payment, usually derived from wages, salaries, or investments.

Wealth: Money and material possessions held by an individual or group.
Bourdieu''s economic capital and culture capital
Increasingly, individuals distinguish themselves on the basis of cultural tastes and leisure pursuits. (Taste, manners, language, education, etc.)
Classes in the U.S.
The main class divisions are among people in the

upper (investment money as major income, don''t depend on salary: head of major corporation, professional athlete)

upper (doctors, lawyers, professors, engineers) and lower (trained office workers: bookkeepers, secretary) middle (have certain control over their labor, leisure time)

working class (blue/pink-collar jobs: factory worker, mechanic, sales clerk),

lower class
(work part time or not at all: cleaning house, sweatshop) and

the underclass (can't get job, inner city).
What precipitated the emergence of the "new urban poor" in the past quarter century?
Economic globalization (unemployment, esp. unskilled/ semiskilled jobs) and cut in government assistance programs.
Marx on class (means of production)
Marx emphasized class, which he saw as an objectively given characteristic of the economic structure of society. He saw a fundamental split between the owners of capital and the workers, who do not own capital. Eventually there are only 2 classes, bourgeoisie and proletariat.

Capitalism is intrinsically unstable and causes alienation.

Weber on class (PPP)
Weber accepted a similar view but distinguished another aspect of stratification, status. Status refers to the esteem, or "social honor," given to individuals or groups.

Weber believes class is multidimensional and includes property (life chances, objective), prestige (reputation, subjective) and power (influence, subjective).

Class: property
Status:  Prestige, Power
Eric Olin Wright- contradictory class locations
Positions in the class structure, particularly routine white-collar and lower managerial jobs, that share characteristics of the class positions both above and below them.

3 dimensions of control over economic resources: capital, physical means of production, labor.

Middle class is caught in between. Have certain control, but not all means of production.
Frank Parkin (social closure)
Practices by which groups separate themselves off from other groups. Those in power want to maintain social boundary and prevent sharing of their goods.
Sex vs. gender
Sex- biological

Gender- socially constructed
Gender typing, glass ceiling, glass escalator
Gender typing: Women holding occupations of lower status and pay, such as secretarial and retail positions, and men holding jobs of higher status and pay, such as managerial and professional positions.

Glass Ceiling: A promotion barrier that prevents a woman''s upward mobility within an organization.

Glass Escalator: a phenomenon whereby men working in female-dominated professions are promoted to top administrative jobs in disproportionately high numbers.
Social construction of gender and Gender Socialization
Gender Socialization: The process of internalizing the social norms and expectations that correspond with one''s sex through social agents such as the family, peers, and the media.
Human Capital Theory
Argument that individuals make investments in their own "human capital" in order to increase their productivity and earnings.

Women seek less-demanding jobs that require little personal investment in training or skills acquisition—and therefore that pay less—so they can have more time to devote to domestic responsibilities

Women cannot know which jobs will stay steady. Not all women are affected by their biological clock.
The dominance of men over women. All known societies are patriarchal, although there are variations in the degree and nature of the power men exercise, as compared with women. One of the prime objectives of women''s movements in modern societies is to combat existing patriarchal institutions.
Liberal vs. Radical Feminism
Liberal: Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and certain social resources, such as education and employment, based on sex. Liberal feminists tend to seek solutions through changes in legislation that ensure that the rights of individuals are protected.

Radical: Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is the result of male domination in all aspects of social and economic life.
Race vs. Ethnicity
Race: Differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals.

Ethnicity: Cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others. An ethnic group is one whose members share a distinct awareness of a common cultural identity, separating them from other groups. In virtually all societies, ethnic differences are associated with variations in power and material wealth. Where ethnic differences are also racial, such divisions are sometimes especially pronounced.
Symbolic Ethnicity
Ethnic identity that is retained only for symbolic importance.
Situational Ethnicity
Ethnic identity that is chosen for the moment based on the social setting or situation.
Assimilation vs Pluralism
Assimilation: a process in which formerly distinct and separate groups come to share a common culture and merge together socially.

–“melting pot” (equal contribution to the creation of a common culture and a new society)
–Americanization/Anglo-conformity (a coercive, one-sided process; predominance and acceptance)

Pluralism: exists when groups maintain their individual identities (remain separate)

-Cultural pluralism (e.g. Native Americans)
–Structural pluralism (separate organizational systems, e.g. churches, clubs, schools, neighborhoods)
–Integration without acculturation (material success without becoming Americanized, e.g. enclave minority or middleman minority)
New Racism
use culture to cover up racist remarks. Exclude certain groups on basis of cultural differences.

(old racism: biological differences)
Work vs. Occupation
Work is the carrying out of tasks that involve the expenditure of mental and physical effort and has as its objective the production of goods and services catering to human needs.

An occupation is work that is done in exchange for a regular wage.
Why is a job important for most people?
money, social contacts, provide rythem/structure to day,self-esteem, etc.
Paid work, unpaid work and informal economy
Paid Work: labor in exchange for cash

Unpaid Work: nonpaid labor like fixing one''s own car, housework, volunteer work

Informal Economy: Economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of orthodox paid employment. "off the books"
Marx on alienation
private property -> two unequal and competing classes: one for the satisfaction, and the other for subsistence (alienation)

Alienation: The sense that our own abilities as human beings are taken over by other entities. The term was originally used by Marx to refer to the projection of human powers onto gods. Subsequently he used the term to refer to the loss of workers'' control over the nature and products of their labor.
Types/ stages of corporate capitalism
Managerial: owners do not run, stockholders. Owners, managers and workers.

Family: family run enterprises, owner also runs (mom and pop shop, Rockefeller)

Welfare: Child care, training, job security, corporation controls not government.

Institutional: Banks, ownership has become defused, stockholders,not directly (hedgefunds), individuals do not have much power, financial institutions hold power.
An economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.

aka. means of production held largely in private hands
Family of orientation vs. Family of procreation
Family of orientation: The families into which individuals are born.

Family of procreation: The families individuals initiate through marriage or by having children.
nuclear vs. extended family
Nuclear: A family group consisting of a wife, a husband (or one of these), and dependent children.

Extended: A family group consisting of more than two generations of relatives living either within the same household or very close to one another.
Funcionalist: Parsons
– Parsons:
* primary socialization (The process by which children learn the cultural norms of the society into which they are born. Primary socialization occurs largely in the family)

* personality stabilization (According to the theory of functionalism, the family plays a crucial role in assisting its adult members emotionally. Marriage between adult men and women is the arrangement through which adult personalities are supported and kept healthy.)

* men: instrumental breadwinners, women: affective, emotional role
Child Rearing: Lareau
Middle-class families: concerted cultivation -> sense of entitlement -> cultural capital for dealing with formal institutions

Working-class families: accomplishment of natural growth -> sense of constraint -> disadvantaged in institutional settings
Second Shift
Women''s dual roles at work and home.
Education as a social institution
Sociologists define education as a social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge – basic facts,
job skills, and cultural norms and values.

*assimilation or acculturation; credentialism; and social or cultural reproduction (schools help perpetuate social and economic inequalities across generations.)
Hidden Curriculum
- individualism and competition
- conformity to mainstream norms
- obedience to authority
- passive consumption of ideas (transmitting culture)
- acceptance of social inequality
- an agent of change
Content of education less relevant than diploma. Social function- degree= job credential

educational attainment= class position= reinforces class structure
Education and Class
– Intelligence (IQ) (The Bell Curve: book dealing with a major controversy about IQ. The book claims that races differ in terms of their average level of inherited intelligence. Critics reject this thesis completely.)

– Aspiration/motivation

– Family background (economic capital, cultural capital, social capital)
Stereotype threat
Idea that when African American students believe they are being judged not as individuals but as members of a negatively stereotyped social group, they will do worse on tests.
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